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      Measuring phenotypic assortment in animal social networks: weighted associations are more robust than binary edges

      Animal Behaviour
      Elsevier BV

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          Assortative mixing in networks

          M. Newman (2002)
          A network is said to show assortative mixing if the nodes in the network that have many connections tend to be connected to other nodes with many connections. We define a measure of assortative mixing for networks and use it to show that social networks are often assortatively mixed, but that technological and biological networks tend to be disassortative. We propose a model of an assortative network, which we study both analytically and numerically. Within the framework of this model we find that assortative networks tend to percolate more easily than their disassortative counterparts and that they are also more robust to vertex removal.
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            The spread of epidemic disease on networks

            M. Newman (2002)
            The study of social networks, and in particular the spread of disease on networks, has attracted considerable recent attention in the physics community. In this paper, we show that a large class of standard epidemiological models, the so-called susceptible/infective/removed (SIR) models can be solved exactly on a wide variety of networks. In addition to the standard but unrealistic case of fixed infectiveness time and fixed and uncorrelated probability of transmission between all pairs of individuals, we solve cases in which times and probabilities are non-uniform and correlated. We also consider one simple case of an epidemic in a structured population, that of a sexually transmitted disease in a population divided into men and women. We confirm the correctness of our exact solutions with numerical simulations of SIR epidemics on networks.
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              Mixing patterns in networks

              M. Newman (2002)
              We study assortative mixing in networks, the tendency for vertices in networks to be connected to other vertices that are like (or unlike) them in some way. We consider mixing according to discrete characteristics such as language or race in social networks and scalar characteristics such as age. As a special example of the latter we consider mixing according to vertex degree, i.e., according to the number of connections vertices have to other vertices: do gregarious people tend to associate with other gregarious people? We propose a number of measures of assortative mixing appropriate to the various mixing types, and apply them to a variety of real-world networks, showing that assortative mixing is a pervasive phenomenon found in many networks. We also propose several models of assortatively mixed networks, both analytic ones based on generating function methods, and numerical ones based on Monte Carlo graph generation techniques. We use these models to probe the properties of networks as their level of assortativity is varied. In the particular case of mixing by degree, we find strong variation with assortativity in the connectivity of the network and in the resilience of the network to the removal of vertices.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Animal Behaviour
                Animal Behaviour
                Elsevier BV
                00033472
                March 2014
                March 2014
                : 89
                :
                : 141-153
                Article
                10.1016/j.anbehav.2014.01.001
                56f12d39-35de-47d5-a2c0-9b1f2c09c195
                © 2014
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