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      Gastroparesis

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          Most cited references165

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          Clinical guideline: management of gastroparesis.

          This guideline presents recommendations for the evaluation and management of patients with gastroparesis. Gastroparesis is identified in clinical practice through the recognition of the clinical symptoms and documentation of delayed gastric emptying. Symptoms from gastroparesis include nausea, vomiting, early satiety, postprandial fullness, bloating, and upper abdominal pain. Management of gastroparesis should include assessment and correction of nutritional state, relief of symptoms, improvement of gastric emptying and, in diabetics, glycemic control. Patient nutritional state should be managed by oral dietary modifications. If oral intake is not adequate, then enteral nutrition via jejunostomy tube needs to be considered. Parenteral nutrition is rarely required when hydration and nutritional state cannot be maintained. Medical treatment entails use of prokinetic and antiemetic therapies. Current approved treatment options, including metoclopramide and gastric electrical stimulation (GES, approved on a humanitarian device exemption), do not adequately address clinical need. Antiemetics have not been specifically tested in gastroparesis, but they may relieve nausea and vomiting. Other medications aimed at symptom relief include unapproved medications or off-label indications, and include domperidone, erythromycin (primarily over a short term), and centrally acting antidepressants used as symptom modulators. GES may relieve symptoms, including weekly vomiting frequency, and the need for nutritional supplementation, based on open-label studies. Second-line approaches include venting gastrostomy or feeding jejunostomy; intrapyloric botulinum toxin injection was not effective in randomized controlled trials. Most of these treatments are based on open-label treatment trials and small numbers. Partial gastrectomy and pyloroplasty should be used rarely, only in carefully selected patients. Attention should be given to the development of new effective therapies for symptomatic control.
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            The prevalence by staged severity of various types of diabetic neuropathy, retinopathy, and nephropathy in a population-based cohort: the Rochester Diabetic Neuropathy Study.

            The magnitude of the health problem from diabetic neuropathies remains inadequately estimated due to the lack of prospective population-based studies employing standardized and validated assessments of the type and stage of neuropathy as compared with background frequency. All Rochester, Minnesota, residents with diabetes mellitus on January 1, 1986, were invited to participate in a cross-sectional and longitudinal study of diabetic neuropathies (and also of other microvascular and macrovascular complications). Of 64,573 inhabitants on January 1, 1986 in Rochester, 870 (1.3%) had clinically recognized diabetes mellitus (National Diabetes Data Group criteria), of whom 380 were enrolled in the Rochester Diabetic Neuropathy Study. Of these, 102 (26.8%) had insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM), and 278 (73.2%) had non-insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (NIDDM). Approximately 10% of diabetic patients had neurologic deficits attributable to nondiabetic causes. Sixty-six percent of IDDM patients had some form of neuropathy; the frequencies of individual types were as follows: polyneuropathy, 54%; carpal tunnel syndrome, asymptomatic, 22%, and symptomatic, 11%; visceral autonomic neuropathy, 7%, and other varieties, 3%. Among NIDDM patients, 59% had various neuropathies; the individual percentages were 45%, 29%, 6%, 5%, and 3%. Symptomatic degrees of polyneuropathy occurred in only 15% of IDDM and 13% of NIDDM patients. The more severe stage of polyneuropathy, to the point that patients were unable to walk on their heels and also had distal sensory and autonomic deficits (stage 2b) occurred even less frequently--6% of IDDM and 1% of NIDDM patients.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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              American Gastroenterological Association technical review on the diagnosis and treatment of gastroparesis.

              This literature review and the recommendations herein were prepared for the American Gastroenterological Association Clinical Practice Committee. The paper was approved by the Committee on May 16, 2004, and by the AGA Governing Board on September 23, 2004.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Disease Primers
                Nat Rev Dis Primers
                Springer Nature America, Inc
                2056-676X
                December 2018
                November 1 2018
                December 2018
                : 4
                : 1
                Article
                10.1038/s41572-018-0038-z
                30385743
                578d4e88-c900-409a-9e24-a2143ab2260c
                © 2018

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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