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      Consenso sobre mobiliario infantil seguro: Versión abreviada Translated title: Consensus on safe infant's furniture: Brief version

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          Abstract

          Diversos productos que se utilizanhabitualmente para el sostén, el transporte o el entretenimiento de niños pequeños pueden causar lesiones no intencionales. El presente consenso intenta brindar a pediatras y familias elementos para conocer y elegir el mobiliario infantil seguro. El consenso convocó a 24 expertos y se realizó siguiendo el método Delphi, que consiste en rondas sucesivas de preguntas. Las recomendaciones están avaladas conbibliografía sobre cada tema. Se recomienda no utilizar andadores, por ser inútiles y peligrosos. Se dan pautas para elegir un sistema de retención infantil adecuado a cada niño, cómo y cuándo utilizarlo y cómo instalarlo en forma segura. Se describen las lesiones y sus medidas de prevención en relación con cochecitos para niños, sillas altas, cunas y cuchetas. Se esquematizan los riesgos y las formas de evitarlos mediante figuras, que podrían utilizarse para difundir recomendaciones en las familias.

          Translated abstract

          Several products that are used for support, transportation or recreation in infants and children can cause non intentional injuries. This consensus tries to provide pediatricians and families with the necessary elements to recognize and choose safe infant's furniture. A group of 24 experts developed a consensus according to Delphi's method, which consists in successiverounds of questions. Recommendations are supported with bibliography. Infant walkers are not recommended, as they are considered useless and dangerous. Guidelines are given to choose appropriate child restraint systems, when and how to use them, and how to install them in a safe way. Injuries and prevention measures related to strollers, high chairs, cribs and bunk beds are described. Risks and the way to avoid them are diagrammed in figures that can be used to transmit recommendations to families.

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          Most cited references34

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          US infant mortality trends attributable to accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed from 1984 through 2004: are rates increasing?

          Accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed, a subgroup of sudden, unexpected infant deaths, is a leading mechanism of injury-related infant deaths. We explored trends and characteristics of these potentially preventable deaths. In this descriptive study, we analyzed US infant mortality data from 1984 through 2004. To explore trends in accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed and other sudden, unexpected infant deaths, we calculated cause-specific infant mortality rates and estimated proportionate mortality. Sudden, unexpected infant death was defined as a combination of all deaths attributed to accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed, sudden infant death syndrome, and unknown causes. Finally, we examined factors that were reported as contributing to these accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed deaths. Between 1984 and 2004, infant mortality rates attributed to accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed increased from 2.8 to 12.5 deaths per 100000 live births. These rates remained relatively stagnant between 1984 and 1992 and increased between 1992 and 2004; the most dramatic increase occurred between 1996 and 2004 (14% average annual increase). In contrast, total sudden, unexpected infant death rates remained stagnant between 1996 and 2004, whereas the proportion of deaths attributed to sudden infant death syndrome declined and to unknown cause increased. Black male infants <4 months of age were disproportionately affected by accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed. Beds, cribs, and couches were reported as places where deaths attributed to accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed occurred. Infant mortality rates attributable to accidental suffocation and strangulation in bed have quadrupled since 1984. The reason for this increase is unknown. Prevention efforts should target those at highest risk and focus on helping parents and caregivers provide safer sleep environments.
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            El método Delphi para la consulta a expertos en la investigación científica

            Objetivos: realizar una sistematización en fases de las tareas y acciones progresivas que conforman el método Delphi para la obtención de consenso al consultar a expertos y brindar a los investigadores cubanos información que facilite su uso. Fuente de datos: se realizó una búsqueda en las bases de datos bibliográficos Medline, Pubmed y SciELO Cuba del término "Delphi" empleado en títulos y resúmenes, publicados entre los años 2007 y 2012. Se consultaron además artículos y documentos citados por estas y publicados con anterioridad a través de Hinari y Ebsco o directamente a través de la dirección electrónica declarada en dichos artículos. Se incluyeron revisiones, artículos de investigación, documentos de organizaciones y capítulos de libros. Resultados: se presentan precisiones conceptuales y se describe el método Delphi, sus orígenes, peculiaridades, ventajas y empleo en la investigación, con énfasis en el campo de la salud. Se propone una sistematización del procedimiento de realización del Delphi que incluye nueve tareas organizadas en tres fases: preparatoria, de consulta y de consenso. Conclusiones: siendo el Delphi un método de investigación cualitativa, se requiere, al publicar estudios que lo empleen, describir ampliamente los detalles del proceso. Las tareas y acciones aquí delimitadas pueden utilizarse como parámetros para el análisis metodológico de investigaciones que utilicen el método y constituyen una guía para la redacción del informe final y de la publicación.
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              Injuries among infants treated in emergency departments in the United States, 2001-2004.

              The objective of this study was to present a detailed examination of unintentional injuries in infants < or = 12 months of age treated in emergency departments. We conducted a retrospective analysis of data for infants < or = 12 months of age from the National Electronic Surveillance System-All Injury Program for 2001-2004. Sample weights provided by the National Electronic Surveillance System-All Injury Program were used to make national estimates. An estimated 1,314,000 injured infants were treated in US emergency departments for nonfatal unintentional injuries during the 4-year period of 2001-2004, approximately 1 infant every 1.5 minutes. Falls were the leading cause of nonfatal unintentional injuries for infants. Overall, the patients were more likely to be male (55.2%) than female (44.8%). Contusions/abrasions were the leading diagnosis overall (26.7%). Contusion/abrasion, laceration, hematoma, foreign-body, and puncture injuries occurred most frequently to the head or neck region. More than one third of fractures (37.2%) were to the arm or hand. Bed was the product most frequently noted as being involved in the injury event for every age except 2 and 12 months (car seat was the most frequently noted product at 2 months of age, and stairs were top ranked at 12 months). Product rank changed markedly as age increased. The influences of the social environment, the physical environment, and products change as infants mature in the first year of life; this was substantiated in our study by the shift in the relative importance of products involved in injuries according to month of age. The concept that aspects of safety must adapt in anticipation of developmental stage is critical.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                aap
                Archivos argentinos de pediatría
                Arch. argent. pediatr.
                Sociedad Argentina de Pediatría (Buenos Aires, , Argentina )
                0325-0075
                1668-3501
                April 2016
                : 114
                : 2
                : 2-3
                Article
                S0325-00752016000200027
                10.5546/aap.2016.182
                58d5d759-8c87-4143-9f20-d98c0497442a

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 36, Pages: 2
                Product
                Product Information: website

                Seguridad,Mobiliario infantil,Andadores,Sistemas de retención infantil,Cuchetas,Safety,Infant furniture,Infant walkers,Child restraint systems,Bunk beds

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