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      Renal involvement as the first manifestation of hypereosinophilic syndrome: a case report

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          Abstract

          Idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome is characterized by elevated and prolonged blood eosinophilia along with organ system involvement and malfunction. The heart is the most frequently involved organ, and renal participation is extremely rare. Herein, we report on a case of idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome with renal involvement as the first manifestation.

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          Most cited references 12

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          The hypereosinophilic syndrome: analysis of fourteen cases with review of the literature.

          Several closely related disease entities make up the idiopathic hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES). The syndrome is manifest by persistent and prolonged eosinophilia with organ damage. A group of 14 patients had hematologic, cardiac, and neurologic abnormalities attributable to this disease. Patient survival and response to chemotherapy was significantly better in this group than in previously reported patients. The etiology of HES remains unknown, as does the mechanism of tissue damage.
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            Hypereosinophilic syndromes

            Hypereosinophilic syndromes (HES) constitute a rare and heterogeneous group of disorders, defined as persistent and marked blood eosinophilia (> 1.5 × 109/L for more than six consecutive months) associated with evidence of eosinophil-induced organ damage, where other causes of hypereosinophilia such as allergic, parasitic, and malignant disorders have been excluded. Prevalence is unknown. HES occur most frequently in young to middle-aged patients, but may concern any age group. Male predominance (4–9:1 ratio) has been reported in historic series but this is likely to reflect the quasi-exclusive male distribution of a sporadic hematopoietic stem cell mutation found in a recently characterized disease variant. Target-organ damage mediated by eosinophils is highly variable among patients, with involvement of skin, heart, lungs, and central and peripheral nervous systems in more than 50% of cases. Other frequently observed complications include hepato- and/or splenomegaly, eosinophilic gastroenteritis, and coagulation disorders. Recent advances in underlying pathogenesis have established that hypereosinophilia may be due either to primitive involvement of myeloid cells, essentially due to occurrence of an interstitial chromosomal deletion on 4q12 leading to creation of the FIP1L1-PDGFRA fusion gene (F/P+ variant), or to increased interleukin (IL)-5 production by a clonally expanded T cell population (lymphocytic variant), most frequently characterized by a CD3-CD4+ phenotype. Diagnosis of HES relies on observation of persistent and marked hypereosinophilia responsible for target-organ damage, and exclusion of underlying causes of hypereosinophilia, including allergic and parasitic disorders, solid and hematological malignancies, Churg-Strauss disease, and HTLV infection. Once these criteria are fulfilled, further testing for eventual pathogenic classification is warranted using appropriate cytogenetic and functional approaches. Therapeutic management should be adjusted to disease severity and eventual detection of pathogenic variants. For F/P+ patients, imatinib has undisputedly become first line therapy. For others, corticosteroids are generally administered initially, followed by agents such as hydroxycarbamide, interferon-alpha, and imatinib, for corticosteroid-resistant cases, as well as for corticosteroid-sparing purposes. Recent data suggest that mepolizumab, an anti-IL-5 antibody, is an effective corticosteroid-sparing agent for F/P-negative patients. Prognosis has improved significantly since definition of HES, and currently depends on development of irreversible heart failure, as well as eventual malignant transformation of myeloid or lymphoid cells.
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              Thrombotic microangiopathy associated with the hypereosinophilic syndrome.

              Hypereosinophilic syndrome (HES), defined as persistent marked eosinophilia of unknown origin complicated by end organ damage, is thought to be due to activation of eosinophils and release of substances that are toxic to various cells and tissues. An association between hypereosinophilia and kidney damage is not well documented. We describe two patients with the HES, acute renal failure, and thrombocytopenic hemolytic anemia. Renal biopsy pathology and immunohistochemistry for activated eosinophils were performed. Renal biopsy revealed glomerular thrombosis, proliferative arteritis, and glomerular and tubulointerstitial eosinophil infiltrates. Ultrastructurally, subendothelial glomerular fibrin deposits and numerous luminal platelets characteristic of thrombotic microangiopathy (TMA) were present. Abundant degranulated eosinophils were localized in glomeruli and the interstitium. Immunofluorescence with specific antibody to eosinophil granule major basic protein (MBP) showed striking extracellular MBP deposition within glomeruli, a marker of eosinophil degranulation. Both patients developed TMA. High-dose glucocorticoids achieved sustained decrease of blood eosinophils and improvement of renal function. To our knowledge these are the first documented cases of TMA associated with HES. We propose that products released from degranulated eosinophils caused endothelial injury and microvascular thrombosis. Recognition of this serious renal complication associated with blood eosinophilia should prompt early diagnosis and treatment.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NDT Plus
                NDT Plus
                ckj
                ndtplus
                NDT Plus
                Oxford University Press
                1753-0784
                1753-0792
                October 2009
                1 August 2009
                1 August 2009
                : 2
                : 5
                : 379-381
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Nephrology
                [2 ]Department of Pathology; Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge , Barcelona, Spain
                Author notes
                Correspondence and offprint requests to: Itziar Navarro; E-mail: 38711inz@ 123456comb.cat
                Article
                sfp092
                10.1093/ndtplus/sfp092
                4421392
                © The Author [2009]. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of ERA-EDTA. All rights reserved. For Permissions, please e-mail: journals.permissions@oxfordjournals.org

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/), which permits non-commercial re-use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. For commercial re-use, please contact journals.permissions@oup.com

                Categories
                Case Report

                Nephrology

                eosinophils, hypereosinophilia, hypereosinophilic syndrome, renal involvement

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