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      Landscape properties affect biodiversity response to retention approaches in forestry

      1 , 1 , 2
      Journal of Applied Ecology
      Wiley

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          Farming and the fate of wild nature.

          World food demand is expected to more than double by 2050. Decisions about how to meet this challenge will have profound effects on wild species and habitats. We show that farming is already the greatest extinction threat to birds (the best known taxon), and its adverse impacts look set to increase, especially in developing countries. Two competing solutions have been proposed: wildlife-friendly farming (which boosts densities of wild populations on farmland but may decrease agricultural yields) and land sparing (which minimizes demand for farmland by increasing yield). We present a model that identifies how to resolve the trade-off between these approaches. This shows that the best type of farming for species persistence depends on the demand for agricultural products and on how the population densities of different species on farmland change with agricultural yield. Empirical data on such density-yield functions are sparse, but evidence from a range of taxa in developing countries suggests that high-yield farming may allow more species to persist.
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            The matrix matters: effective isolation in fragmented landscapes.

            Traditional approaches to the study of fragmented landscapes invoke an island-ocean model and assume that the nonhabitat matrix surrounding remnant patches is uniform. Patch isolation, a crucial parameter to the predictions of island biogeography and metapopulation theories, is measured by distance alone. To test whether the type of interpatch matrix can contribute significantly to patch isolation, I conducted a mark-recapture study on a butterfly community inhabiting meadows in a naturally patchy landscape. I used maximum likelihood to estimate the relative resistances of the two major matrix types (willow thicket and conifer forest) to butterfly movement between meadow patches. For four of the six butterfly taxa (subfamilies or tribes) studied, conifer was 3-12 times more resistant than willow. For the two remaining taxa (the most vagile and least vagile in the community), resistance estimates for willow and conifer were not significantly different, indicating that responses to matrix differ even among closely related species. These results suggest that the surrounding matrix can significantly influence the "effective isolation" of habitat patches, rendering them more or less isolated than simple distance or classic models would indicate. Modification of the matrix may provide opportunities for reducing patch isolation and thus the extinction risk of populations in fragmented landscapes.
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              The effects of organic agriculture on biodiversity and abundance: a meta-analysis

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Applied Ecology
                J Appl Ecol
                Wiley
                00218901
                December 2017
                December 2017
                March 21 2017
                : 54
                : 6
                : 1627-1637
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Graduate School of Environment and Information Sciences; Yokohama National University; Yokohama 240-8501 Japan
                [2 ]Department of Ecology; Swedish University of Agricultural Sciences; Box 7044 SE-750 07 Uppsala Sweden
                Article
                10.1111/1365-2664.12888
                5b7a792e-f70f-423b-a3b4-30cb8310ed7f
                © 2017

                http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

                http://onlinelibrary.wiley.com/termsAndConditions#vor


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