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      The Prevalence of Common Cardiovascular Diseases among 17-Year-Old Israeli Conscripts

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          Background: There are only few reports on the prevalence of common cardiovascular disorders among adolescents. The previous studies focused on specific diseases, and screened relatively small samples. Objective: The aim of this study was to define the prevalence of different common cardiovascular disorders among 17-year-old Israeli conscripts. A comparison between the morbidity patterns of female and male adolescents was also performed. Design:All 17-years-old Israeli nationals are obliged by law to appear at the Israel Defense Forces Recruiting Office for medical examination except for orthodox religious and Arabic adolescents. Cardiology specialists evaluated and classified nominees with suspected cardiovascular disorders. Results: The most prevalent diagnoses were valvular heart disease (590/ 100,000), syncope (440/100,000), and mitral valve prolapse (340/100,000). The most prominent differences between female and male adolescents were noted in the prevalence of: congenital valvular heart disease, syncope, history of hypertension, supraventricular tachycardia with pre-excitation, myocarditis and pericarditis, and bradycardia and conduction disorders. Conclusions: The most prevalent cardiac disorders among 17-year-old Israelis were congenital valvular heart disease, syncope and mitral valve prolapse. Some significant differences were noted between the morbidity patterns among male and female adolescents. The higher prevalence of congenital valvular heart disease compared to non-valvular heart disease is surprising. The prevalence of hypertension among Israeli adolescents in the last 15 years remained stable.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Incidence and prognosis of syncope.

          Little is known about the epidemiology and prognosis of syncope in the general population. We evaluated the incidence, specific causes, and prognosis of syncope among women and men participating in the Framingham Heart Study from 1971 to 1998. Of 7814 study participants followed for an average of 17 years, 822 reported syncope. The incidence of a first report of syncope was 6.2 per 1000 person-years. The most frequently identified causes were vasovagal (21.2 percent), cardiac (9.5 percent), and orthostatic (9.4 percent); for 36.6 percent the cause was unknown. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios among participants with syncope from any cause, as compared with those who did not have syncope, were 1.31 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.14 to 1.51) for death from any cause, 1.27 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.99 to 1.64) for myocardial infarction or death from coronary heart disease, and 1.06 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.77 to 1.45) for fatal or nonfatal stroke. The corresponding hazard ratios among participants with cardiac syncope were 2.01 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.48 to 2.73), 2.66 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.69 to 4.19), and 2.01 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.06 to 3.80). Participants with syncope of unknown cause and those with neurologic syncope had increased risks of death from any cause, with multivariable-adjusted hazard ratios of 1.32 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.09 to 1.60) and 1.54 (95 percent confidence interval, 1.12 to 2.12), respectively. There was no increased risk of cardiovascular morbidity or mortality associated with vasovagal (including orthostatic and medication-related) syncope. Persons with cardiac syncope are at increased risk for death from any cause and cardiovascular events, and persons with syncope of unknown cause are at increased risk for death from any cause. Vasovagal syncope appears to have a benign prognosis. Copyright 2002 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Economic burden of obesity in youths aged 6 to 17 years: 1979-1999.

             G Wang,  W Dietz (2002)
            To examine the trend of obesity-associated diseases in youths and related economic costs. Using a multiyear data file of the National Hospital Discharge Survey, 1979-1999, we analyzed the changes in obesity-associated diseases and economic costs in youths (6-17 years of age) over time. Diabetes, obesity, sleep apnea, and gallbladder disease were examined to explore the trend of the disease burden. Other obesity-associated diseases for which obesity was listed as a secondary diagnosis were also analyzed. Obesity-associated hospital costs were estimated from the discharges with obesity listed as a principal or secondary diagnosis. From 1979-1981 to 1997-1999, the percentage of discharges with obesity-associated diseases increased. The discharges of diabetes nearly doubled (from 1.43% to 2.36%), obesity and gallbladder diseases tripled (0.36% to 1.07% and 0.18% to 0.59%, respectively), and sleep apnea increased fivefold (0.14% to 0.75%). Ninety-six percent of discharges with a diagnosis of obesity listed obesity as a secondary diagnosis. Asthma and some mental disorders were the most common principal diagnoses when obesity was listed as a secondary diagnosis. Obesity-associated annual hospital costs (based on 2001 constant US dollar value) increased more than threefold; from $35 million (0.43% of total hospital costs) during 1979-1981 to $127 million (1.70% of total hospital costs) during 1997-1999. Among all hospital discharges, the proportion of discharges with obesity-associated diseases has increased dramatically in the past 20 years. This increase has led to a significant growth in economic costs. These findings may reflect the impact of increasing prevalence and severity of obesity. Diet and physical activity interventions should be developed for weight loss and prevention of weight gain in youths.
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              Syncope in children and adolescents.

              The objectives of this study were to 1) define the incidence of syncope coming to medical attention among children and adolescents, 2) determine the outcome of syncope in these patients, and 3) determine changes over time in the evaluation and charges for evaluating this problem. Syncope occurs commonly in children and adolescents. However, the mid- and long-term outcome of children and adolescents who experience syncope is unknown. Utilizing the Rochester Epidemiology Project, we determined the incidence, outcome and charges for medical evaluation for patients seeking medical attention for syncope during an early 5-year period (1950 to 1954) and a more recent 5-year period (1987 to 1991). The incidence of syncope coming to medical attention was 71.9 and 125.8/100,000 population for the early and more recent cohort, respectively. The incidence was higher for female than for male patients. The incidence peaked in 15- to 19-year old patients. Acute illness and noxious stimuli were associated with 24% and 23% of the episodes, respectively. Although long-term survival was not different from that of the general population, one child died suddenly, and another had hereditary prolonged QT interval syndrome. These were two of only six patients who had exertional syncope. Total charges for evaluation of syncope were similar in the two time periods. However, charges for testing procedures were greater for the more recent cohort. In general, syncope in children and adolescents is a benign event. Syncope occurring during exercise may identify patients with a potentially fatal condition. Detailed evaluation should be considered for patients who have syncope during exercise or who have a family history of syncope, sudden death, myocardial disease or arrhythmias. It may be prudent to obtain an electrocardiogram for all patients who seek medical attention for syncope.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                August 2005
                19 August 2005
                : 104
                : 1
                : 6-9
                Surgeon General Headquarters, Israeli Air Force and Israel Defense Forces Medical Corps, and Department of Health System Management, Faculty of Health Sciences, Ben Gurion University, Beer Sheba, Israel
                86046 Cardiology 2005;104:6–9
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Tables: 1, References: 27, Pages: 4
                General Cardiology


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