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      Genetic diversity of the intimin gene ( eae) in non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains in China

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          Abstract

          Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is an important foodborne pathogen. The increasing incidence of non-O157 STEC has posed a great risk to public health. Besides the Shiga toxin (Stx), the adherence factor, intimin, coded by eae gene plays a critical role in STEC pathogenesis. In this study, we investigated the prevalence and polymorphisms of eae gene in non-O157 STEC strains isolated from different sources in China. Among 735 non-O157 STEC strains, eae was present in 70 (9.5%) strains. Eighteen different eae genotypes were identified in 62 eae-positive STEC strains with the nucleotide identities ranging from 86.01% to 99.97%. Among which, seven genotypes were newly identified in this study. The eighteen eae genotypes can be categorized into five eae subtypes, namely β1, γ1, ε1, ζ3 and θ. Associations between eae subtypes/genotypes and serotypes as well as origins of strains were observed in this study. Strains belonging to serotypes O26:H11, O103:H2, O111:H8 are associated with particular eae subtypes, i.e., β1, ε1, θ, respectively. Most strains from diarrheal patients (7/9, 77.8%) carried eae-β1 subtype, while most isolates from cattle (23/26, 88.5%) carried eae-ζ3 subtype. This study demonstrated a genetic diversity of eae gene in non-O157 STEC strains from different sources in China.

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          Most cited references39

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          The emerging clinical importance of non-O157 Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli.

          In 1982, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome were linked to infection with Escherichia coli O157:H7, a serotype now classified as Shiga toxin-producing E. coli (STEC). Thereafter, hemorrhagic colitis and hemolytic-uremic syndrome associated with non-O157 STEC serogroups were reported, with the frequency of non-O157 STEC illness rivaling that of O157:H7 in certain geographic regions. In the United States, non-O157 E. coli may account for up to 20%-50% of all STEC infections. A high index of suspicion, paired with options to test for non-O157 STEC infection, are necessary for early recognition and appropriate treatment of these infections. Supportive care without the use of antibiotics is currently considered to be optimal treatment for all STEC infections. This commentary provides a perspective on the non-O157 STEC as human pathogens, how and when the clinician should approach the diagnosis of these organisms, and the challenges ahead.
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            Clinical Significance of Escherichia albertii

            Discriminating Escherichia albertii from other Enterobacteriaceae is difficult. Systematic analyses showed that E. albertii represents a substantial portion of strains currently identified as eae-positive Escherichia coli and includes Shiga toxin 2f–producing strains. Because E. albertii possesses the eae gene, many strains might have been misidentified as enterohemorrhagic or enteropathogenic E. coli.
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              Molecular mechanisms that mediate colonization of Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli strains.

              Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) is a group of pathogens which cause gastrointestinal disease in humans and have been associated with numerous food-borne outbreaks worldwide. The intimin adhesin has been considered for many years to be the only colonization factor in these strains. However, the rapid progress in whole-genome sequencing of different STEC serotypes has accelerated the discovery of other adhesins (fimbrial and afimbrial), which have emerged as important contributors to the intestinal colonization occurring during STEC infection. This review summarizes recent progress to identify and characterize, at the molecular level, novel adhesion and colonization factors in STEC strains, with an emphasis on their contribution to virulence traits, their host-pathogen interactions, the regulatory mechanisms controlling their expression, and their role as targets eliciting immune responses in the host.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                baixiangning@icdc.cn
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                24 February 2020
                24 February 2020
                2020
                : 10
                : 3275
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8803 2373, GRID grid.198530.6, State Key Laboratory of Infectious Disease Prevention and Control, National Institute for Communicable Disease Control and Prevention, Chinese Center for Disease Control and Prevention, ; Beijing, China
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 0696 9806, GRID grid.148374.d, mEpiLab, New Zealand Food Safety Science & Research Centre, School of Veterinary Science, Massey University, ; Palmerston North, New Zealand
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1937 0626, GRID grid.4714.6, Division of Clinical Microbiology, Department of Laboratory Medicine, Karolinska Institutet, ; Huddinge, Sweden
                [4 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0389 8485, GRID grid.55325.34, Division of Laboratory Medicine, Oslo University Hospital, ; Oslo, Norway
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1759 700X, GRID grid.13402.34, Collaborative Innovation Center for Diagnosis and Treatment of Infectious Diseases, ; Hangzhou, China
                Article
                60225
                10.1038/s41598-020-60225-w
                7040016
                32094410
                5bedc631-1872-4030-9414-1c036addbc82
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                History
                : 16 September 2019
                : 5 February 2020
                Funding
                Funded by: FundRef https://doi.org/10.13039/501100001809, National Natural Science Foundation of China (National Science Foundation of China);
                Award ID: 81772152
                Award ID: 81701977
                Award Recipient :
                Funded by: National Key R&D Program of China (2018YFC1603800) National Science and Technology Major Project (2018ZX10201001-006 and 2018ZX10301407-002).
                Categories
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                © The Author(s) 2020

                Uncategorized
                bacteria,public health
                Uncategorized
                bacteria, public health

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