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      Thrombin Generation in Patients with Atrial Fibrillation Undergoing Percutaneous Coronary Intervention

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          Abstract

          Background: The optimal antithrombotic treatment for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) that undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is controversial. Dual therapy (clopidogrel and a direct oral anticoagulant [DOAC]) is safer than triple therapy (warfarin, aspirin, and clopidogrel), while efficacy is unclear. We aimed to evaluate thrombin generation (TG) under dual and triple therapy. Methods: A noninterventional prospective trial in patients with AF undergoing PCI. Patients received 4 weeks of triple therapy with aspirin, clopidogrel, and a DOAC followed by aspirin withdrawal. TG was measured in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) at 3 five to 21 points, day 1 after PCI (TIME 0), 4 weeks after PCI (TIME 1), and 2 weeks after aspirin withdrawal (TIME 2). Results: Twenty-three patients (18 men, median age 78 years, 83% with acute coronary syndrome) were included. Endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) in PPP was high at TIME 0 compared with TIME 1 (ETP 3,178 ± 248 nM vs. 2,378 ± 222 nM, p = 0.005). These results remained consistent when measured in PRP. No significant difference in ETP was found before (TIME 1) and after aspirin withdrawal (TIME 2) although few patients had high ETP levels after stopping aspirin. Conclusions: TG potential is high immediately after PCI and decreases 4 weeks after PCI in patients receiving triple therapy. TG remains constant after aspirin withdrawal in most patients, suggesting that after 1 month the antithrombotic effect of dual therapy may be similar to triple therapy.

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          Most cited references 22

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          A clinical trial comparing three antithrombotic-drug regimens after coronary-artery stenting. Stent Anticoagulation Restenosis Study Investigators.

          Antithrombotic drugs are used after coronary-artery stenting to prevent stent thrombosis. We compared the efficacy and safety of three antithrombotic-drug regimens - aspirin alone, aspirin and warfarin, and aspirin and ticlopidine - after coronary stenting. Of 1965 patients who underwent coronary stenting at 50 centers, 1653 (84.1 percent) met angiographic criteria for successful placement of the stent and were randomly assigned to one of three regimens: aspirin alone (557 patients), aspirin and warfarin (550 patients), or aspirin and ticlopidine (546 patients). All clinical events reflecting stent thrombosis were included in the prespecified primary end point: death, revascularization of the target lesion, angiographically evident thrombosis, or myocardial infarction within 30 days. The primary end point was observed in 38 patients: 20 (3.6 percent) assigned to receive aspirin alone, 15 (2.7 percent) assigned to receive aspirin and warfarin, and 3 (0.5 percent) assigned to receive aspirin and ticlopidine (P=0.001 for the comparison of all three groups). Hemorrhagic complications occurred in 10 patients (1.8 percent) who received aspirin alone, 34 (6.2 percent) who received aspirin and warfarin, and 30 (5.5 percent) who received aspirin and ticlopidine (P<0.001 for the comparison of all three groups); the incidence of vascular surgical complications was 0.4 percent (2 patients), 2.0 percent (11 patients), and 2.0 percent (11 patients), respectively (P=0.01). There were no significant differences in the incidence of neutropenia or thrombocytopenia (overall incidence, 0.3 percent) among the three treatment groups. As compared with aspirin alone and a combination of aspirin and warfarin, treatment with aspirin and ticlopidine resulted in a lower rate of stent thrombosis, although there were more hemorrhagic complications than with aspirin alone. After coronary stenting, aspirin and ticlopidine should be considered for the prevention of the serious complication of stent thrombosis.
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            Management of antithrombotic therapy in atrial fibrillation patients presenting with acute coronary syndrome and/or undergoing percutaneous coronary or valve interventions: a joint consensus document of the European Society of Cardiology Working Group on Thrombosis, European Heart Rhythm Association (EHRA), European Association of Percutaneous Cardiovascular Interventions (EAPCI) and European Association of Acute Cardiac Care (ACCA) endorsed by the Heart Rhythm Society (HRS) and Asia-Pacific Heart Rhythm Society (APHRS).

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              Atrial fibrillation as an independent risk factor for stroke: the Framingham Study

               R Abbott,  P A Wolf,  W Kannel (1991)
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2021
                March 2021
                22 January 2021
                : 146
                : 2
                : 222-227
                Affiliations
                aSackler Faculty of Medicine, Tel-Aviv University, Tel Aviv, Israel
                bDepartment of Cardiology, Beilinson Campus, Rabin Medical Center, Petah Tikva, Israel
                cDepartment of Cardiology, Assuta Ashdod Medical Center, Ashdod, Israel
                dFaculty of Health Sciences, Ben-Gurion University, Beersheba, Israel
                eGeriatric Department, Beilinson Campus, Rabin Medical Center, Petah-Tikva, Israel
                fInstitute of Hematology, Davidoff Cancer Center, Beilinson Campus Rabin Medical Center, Petah-Tikva, Israel
                gInternal Medicine C, Beilinson Campus, Rabin Medical Center, Petah-Tikva, Israel
                Author notes
                *Chen Gurevitz, Department of Cardiology, Beilinson Campus, Rabin Medical Center, 39 Jabotinsky Street, Petah Tikva (Israel), chenmor69@gmail.com
                Article
                512435 Cardiology 2021;146:222–227
                10.1159/000512435
                33486497
                © 2021 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Thrombocardiology: Research Article

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