Chen Gurevitz a , b , * , Alon Eisen a , b , Eli Lev c , d , Osnat Itzhaki Ben Zadok a , b , Leor Perl a , b , Abed Samara a , b , Adaya Nissenholtz a , e , Uri Rozovski a , f , Avishay Elis g , a , Ran Kornowski a , b , Pia Raanani a , f , Eti Ziv a , f , Galia Spectre a , f
22 January 2021
Background: The optimal antithrombotic treatment for patients with atrial fibrillation (AF) that undergo percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) is controversial. Dual therapy (clopidogrel and a direct oral anticoagulant [DOAC]) is safer than triple therapy (warfarin, aspirin, and clopidogrel), while efficacy is unclear. We aimed to evaluate thrombin generation (TG) under dual and triple therapy. Methods: A noninterventional prospective trial in patients with AF undergoing PCI. Patients received 4 weeks of triple therapy with aspirin, clopidogrel, and a DOAC followed by aspirin withdrawal. TG was measured in platelet-rich plasma (PRP) and platelet-poor plasma (PPP) at 3 five to 21 points, day 1 after PCI (TIME 0), 4 weeks after PCI (TIME 1), and 2 weeks after aspirin withdrawal (TIME 2). Results: Twenty-three patients (18 men, median age 78 years, 83% with acute coronary syndrome) were included. Endogenous thrombin potential (ETP) in PPP was high at TIME 0 compared with TIME 1 (ETP 3,178 ± 248 nM vs. 2,378 ± 222 nM, p = 0.005). These results remained consistent when measured in PRP. No significant difference in ETP was found before (TIME 1) and after aspirin withdrawal (TIME 2) although few patients had high ETP levels after stopping aspirin. Conclusions: TG potential is high immediately after PCI and decreases 4 weeks after PCI in patients receiving triple therapy. TG remains constant after aspirin withdrawal in most patients, suggesting that after 1 month the antithrombotic effect of dual therapy may be similar to triple therapy.