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      The Relationship between Adult Height and Blood Pressure

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          Abstract

          Background: Identification and modification of cardiovascular risk factors is paramount to reducing cardiovascular disease morbidity and mortality. Hypertension is a major risk factor for cardiovascular disease, but its association with height remains largely underrecognized. Objectives: The objective of this manuscript is to review the evidence examining the association between blood pressure and human stature and to summarize the plausible pathophysiological mechanisms behind such an association. Methods: A systematic review of adult human height and its association with hypertension and coronary artery disease was undertaken. The literature evidence is summarized and tabulated, and an overview of the pathophysiological basis for this association is presented. Results: Shorter arterial lengths found in shorter individuals may predispose to hypertension in a complex hemodynamic interplay, which is explained predominantly by summated arterial wave reflections and an elevated augmentation index. Our systemic review suggests that an inverse relationship between adult height and blood pressure exists. However, differences in the studied populations and heterogeneity in the methods applied across the various studies limit the generalizability of these findings and their clinical application. Conclusion: Physiological studies and epidemiological data suggest a potential inverse association between adult height and blood pressure. Further research is required to define the relationship more clearly between adult height and blood pressure and to assess whether antihypertensive therapeutic approaches and goals should be modified according to patients’ heights.

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          Most cited references 32

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          2018 ESC/ESH Guidelines for the management of arterial hypertension

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            2017 ACC/AHA/AAPA/ABC/ACPM/AGS/APhA/ASH/ASPC/NMA/PCNA Guideline for the Prevention, Detection, Evaluation, and Management of High Blood Pressure in Adults: A Report of the American College of Cardiology/American Heart Association Task Force on Clinical Practice Guidelines

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              The influence of heart rate on augmentation index and central arterial pressure in humans.

              Arterial stiffness is an important determinant of cardiovascular risk. Augmentation index (AIx) is a measure of systemic arterial stiffness derived from the ascending aortic pressure waveform. The aim of the present study was to assess the effect of heart rate on AIx. We elected to use cardiac pacing rather than chronotropic drugs to minimize confounding effects on the systemic circulation and myocardial contractility. Twenty-two subjects (13 male) with a mean age of 63 years and permanent cardiac pacemakers in situ were studied. Pulse wave analysis was used to determine central arterial pressure waveforms, non-invasively, during incremental pacing (from 60 to 110 beats min-1), from which AIx and central blood pressure were calculated. Peripheral blood pressure was recorded non-invasively from the brachial artery. There was a significant, inverse, linear relationship between AIx and heart rate (r = -0.76; P < 0.001). For a 10 beats min-1 increment, AIx fell by around 4 %. Ejection duration and heart rate were also inversely related (r = -0. 51; P < 0.001). Peripheral systolic, diastolic and mean arterial pressure increased significantly during incremental pacing. Although central diastolic pressure increased significantly with pacing, central systolic pressure did not. There was a significant increase in the ratio of peripheral to central pulse pressure (P < 0.001), which was accounted for by the observed change in central pressure augmentation. These results demonstrate an inverse, linear relationship between AIx and heart rate. This is likely to be due to alterations in the timing of the reflected pressure wave, produced by changes in the absolute duration of systole. Consideration of wave reflection and aortic pressure augmentation may explain the lack of rise in central systolic pressure during incremental pacing despite an increase in peripheral pressure.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                2021
                May 2021
                15 March 2021
                : 146
                : 3
                : 345-350
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Internal Medicine, Baylor College of Medicine and the Michael E DeBakey VA Medical Center, Houston, Texas, USA
                bDepartment of Cardiology, Baylor University Medical Center, Dallas, Texas, USA
                cDepartment of Cardiology, Loyola University Medical Center, Chicago, Illinois, USA
                dSection of Cardiology, Baylor College of Medicine and the Michael E DeBakey VA Medical Center, Houston, Texas, USA
                Author notes
                *Hani Jneid, Section of Cardiology, Baylor College of Medicine and, the Michael DeBakey VA Medical Center, 2002 Holcombe Blvd (111), Houston, TX 77030 (USA), jneid@bcm.edu
                Article
                514205 Cardiology 2021;146:345–350
                10.1159/000514205
                33721862
                © 2021 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 1, Pages: 6
                Categories
                Cardiovascular Prevention: Review Article

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