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      The Relationship Between Ultraviolet Light Exposure and Mortality in Dialysis Patients

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          Abstract

          Background: Emerging data suggest that reduced exposure to ultraviolet (UV) radiation is associated with increased mortality in the general population. To date, the association between UV exposure and mortality in dialysis patients has not been examined. Methods: We examined the association between UV index, a proxy of UV exposure, and all-cause mortality among 47,286 US dialysis patients (entry period 2001-2006, with follow-up through 2009) from a large national dialysis organization using multivariable Cox regression. The UV index was ascertained by linking individual patients' residential zip codes to National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration data, and was categorized as low (0-<3), moderate (3-<5), moderate-high (5-<6), high (6-<7), and very-high (≥7). In secondary analyses, we examined the UV index-mortality association within subgroups of age (<65 vs. ≥65 years old), sex, and race (white vs. non-white). Results: The study population's mean ± SD age was 60 ± 16 and included 46% women and 56% diabetics. Compared to patients residing in moderate-high UV index regions, those residing in high and very-high UV index regions had a lower mortality risk: adjusted HRs 0.84 (95% CI) 0.81-0.88 and 0.83 (95% CI) 0.75-0.91, respectively. A similar inverse association between UV index and mortality was observed across all subgroups, although there was more pronounced reduction in mortality among whites vs. non-whites. Conclusion: These data suggest that dialysis patients residing in higher UV index regions have lower all-cause mortality compared to those living in moderate-high UV regions. Further studies are needed to determine the mechanisms underlying the UV index-mortality association.

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          Most cited references 47

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          Independent association of low serum 25-hydroxyvitamin d and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin d levels with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality.

          In cross-sectional studies, low serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D are associated with higher prevalence of cardiovascular risk factors and disease. This study aimed to determine whether endogenous 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels are related to all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. Prospective cohort study of 3258 consecutive male and female patients (mean [SD] age, 62 [10] years) scheduled for coronary angiography at a single tertiary center. We formed quartiles according to 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels within each month of blood drawings. The main outcome measures were all-cause and cardiovascular deaths. During a median follow-up period of 7.7 years, 737 patients (22.6%) died, including 463 deaths from cardiovascular causes. Multivariate-adjusted hazard ratios (HRs) for patients in the lower two 25-hydroxyvitamin D quartiles (median, 7.6 and 13.3 ng/mL [to convert 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels to nanomoles per liter, multiply by 2.496]) were higher for all-cause mortality (HR, 2.08; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.60-2.70; and HR, 1.53; 95% CI, 1.17-2.01; respectively) and for cardiovascular mortality (HR, 2.22; 95% CI, 1.57-3.13; and HR, 1.82; 95% CI, 1.29-2.58; respectively) compared with patients in the highest 25-hydroxyvitamin D quartile (median, 28.4 ng/mL). Similar results were obtained for patients in the lowest 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D quartile. These effects were independent of coronary artery disease, physical activity level, Charlson Comorbidity Index, variables of mineral metabolism, and New York Heart Association functional class. Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D levels were significantly correlated with variables of inflammation (C-reactive protein and interleukin 6 levels), oxidative burden (serum phospholipid and glutathione levels), and cell adhesion (vascular cell adhesion molecule 1 and intercellular adhesion molecule 1 levels). Low 25-hydroxyvitamin D and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D levels are independently associated with all-cause and cardiovascular mortality. A causal relationship has yet to be proved by intervention trials using vitamin D.
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            25-hydroxyvitamin D and risk of myocardial infarction in men: a prospective study.

            Vitamin D deficiency may be involved in the development of atherosclerosis and coronary heart disease in humans. We assessed prospectively whether plasma 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25[OH]D) concentrations are associated with risk of coronary heart disease. A nested case-control study was conducted in 18,225 men in the Health Professionals Follow-up Study; the men were aged 40 to 75 years and were free of diagnosed cardiovascular disease at blood collection. The blood samples were returned between April 1, 1993, and November 30, 1999; 99% were received between April 1, 1993, and November 30, 1995. During 10 years of follow-up, 454 men developed nonfatal myocardial infarction or fatal coronary heart disease. Using risk set sampling, controls (n = 900) were selected in a 2:1 ratio and matched for age, date of blood collection, and smoking status. After adjustment for matched variables, men deficient in 25(OH)D ( or=30 ng/mL) (relative risk [RR], 2.42; 95% confidence interval [CI], 1.53-3.84; P < .001 for trend). After additional adjustment for family history of myocardial infarction, body mass index, alcohol consumption, physical activity, history of diabetes mellitus and hypertension, ethnicity, region, marine omega-3 intake, low- and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels, and triglyceride levels, this relationship remained significant (RR, 2.09; 95% CI, 1.24-3.54; P = .02 for trend). Even men with intermediate 25(OH)D levels were at elevated risk relative to those with sufficient 25(OH)D levels (22.6-29.9 ng/mL: RR, 1.60 [95% CI, 1.10-2.32]; and 15.0-22.5 ng/mL: RR, 1.43 [95% CI, 0.96-2.13], respectively). Low levels of 25(OH)D are associated with higher risk of myocardial infarction in a graded manner, even after controlling for factors known to be associated with coronary artery disease.
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              Vitamin D levels and early mortality among incident hemodialysis patients.

              Vitamin D deficiency is associated with cardiovascular disease, the most common cause of mortality in hemodialysis patients. To investigate the relation between blood levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25D) and 1,25-dihydroxyvitamin D (1,25D) with hemodialysis outcomes, we measured baseline vitamin D levels in a cross-sectional analysis of 825 consecutive patients from within a prospective cohort of incident US hemodialysis patients. Of these patients, 78% were considered vitamin D deficient with 18% considered severely deficient. Calcium, phosphorus, and parathyroid hormone levels correlated poorly with 25D and 1,25D concentrations. To test the association between baseline vitamin D levels and 90-day mortality, we selected the next 175 consecutive participants who died within 90 days and compared them to the 750 patients who survived in a nested case-control analysis. While low vitamin D levels were associated with increased mortality, significant interaction was noted between vitamin D levels, subsequent active vitamin D therapy, and survival. Compared to patients with the highest 25D or 1,25D levels who received therapy, untreated deficient patients were at significantly increased risk for early mortality. Our study shows that among incident hemodialysis patients, vitamin D deficiency is common, correlates poorly with other components of mineral metabolism and is associated with increased early mortality.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2014
                October 2014
                11 October 2014
                : 40
                : 3
                : 224-232
                Affiliations
                aHarold Simmons Center for Chronic Disease Research and Epidemiology, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of California Irvine Medical Center, Orange, Calif., bVeterans Affairs Long Beach Health Care System, Long Beach, Calif., cMemphis Veterans Affairs Medical Center, dUniversity of Tennessee Health Science Center, Memphis, Tenn., and eDepartments of Environmental Health Sciences and Epidemiology, UCLA Fielding School of Public Health, Los Angeles, Calif., USA
                Author notes
                *Connie M. Rhee, Harold Simmons Center for Chronic Disease Research and Epidemiology, Division of Nephrology and Hypertension, University of California Irvine Medical Center, 101 The City Drive South, City Tower, Suite 400 - ZOT: 4088, Orange, CA 92868-3217 (USA), E-Mail crhee1@uci.edu
                Article
                367903 PMC4283141 Am J Nephrol 2014;40:224-232
                10.1159/000367903
                PMC4283141
                25322752
                © 2014 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Original Report: Patient-Oriented, Translational Research

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Environment, Dialysis, Mortality, Ultraviolet radiation, Vitamin D

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