Given that hypertension in adulthood has its onset in childhood, it is not surprising that the prevalence of hypertension among adolescents has also increased in recent years. However, there are limited data on the prevalence of hypertension and also the new AAP guideline has not yet been applied to the Indonesian adolescent population. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the prevalence of hypertension using the new AAP guideline and to assess the occurrence of its associated factors among Indonesian adolescents.
This was a cross-sectional study conducted at twelve senior high schools in Palembang, South Sumatera, Indonesia, from June to December 2019. The study included adolescents aged 13 to 18 years old. Anthropometric measurements were obtained. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess the risk factors most associated with hypertension among adolescents, and then an equation model was created. The prevalence of hypertension was evaluated, together with several factors such as age group, sex, ethnicity, family history of hypertension, nutritional status, physical activity, perceived stress, sleep duration, nutritional intake, and smoking.
In total, 1200 adolescents aged 15.9 ± 0.99 years were evaluated. The prevalence of hypertension and elevated blood pressure among adolescents was 8% and 12.2%, respectively. There were significant associations between sex, family history of hypertension, hypertensive father, nutritional status, physical activity, perceived stress, and hypertension among Indonesian adolescents ( p < 0.05). Stress was the most powerful risk factor of hypertension with an odds ratio of 5.83 (95% confidence interval 2.91–11.6).
Nowadays, the prevalence of hypertension among Indonesian adolescents is quite high. This may be caused by lifestyle or behavior changes among adolescents. Sex, family history of hypertension, nutritional status, physical activity, and perceived stress influenced the 27% hypertension prevalence rate among Indonesian adolescents, particularly in Palembang, South Sumatera. In order to decrease the prevalence of hypertension in adults, concern about lifestyle or behavior changes and hypertension among adolescents should be given.