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      Facial Features Detection System To Identify Children With Autism Spectrum Disorder: Deep Learning Models

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          Abstract

          Autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a neurodevelopmental disorder associated with brain development that subsequently affects the physical appearance of the face. Autistic children have different patterns of facial features, which set them distinctively apart from typically developed (TD) children. This study is aimed at helping families and psychiatrists diagnose autism using an easy technique, viz., a deep learning-based web application for detecting autism based on experimentally tested facial features using a convolutional neural network with transfer learning and a flask framework. MobileNet, Xception, and InceptionV3 were the pretrained models used for classification. The facial images were taken from a publicly available dataset on Kaggle, which consists of 3,014 facial images of a heterogeneous group of children, i.e., 1,507 autistic children and 1,507 nonautistic children. Given the accuracy of the classification results for the validation data, MobileNet reached 95% accuracy, Xception achieved 94%, and InceptionV3 attained 0.89%.

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          Most cited references32

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          Default-mode network activity distinguishes Alzheimer's disease from healthy aging: evidence from functional MRI.

          Recent functional imaging studies have revealed coactivation in a distributed network of cortical regions that characterizes the resting state, or default mode, of the human brain. Among the brain regions implicated in this network, several, including the posterior cingulate cortex and inferior parietal lobes, have also shown decreased metabolism early in the course of Alzheimer's disease (AD). We reasoned that default-mode network activity might therefore be abnormal in AD. To test this hypothesis, we used independent component analysis to isolate the network in a group of 13 subjects with mild AD and in a group of 13 age-matched elderly controls as they performed a simple sensory-motor processing task. Three important findings are reported. Prominent coactivation of the hippocampus, detected in all groups, suggests that the default-mode network is closely involved with episodic memory processing. The AD group showed decreased resting-state activity in the posterior cingulate and hippocampus, suggesting that disrupted connectivity between these two regions accounts for the posterior cingulate hypometabolism commonly detected in positron emission tomography studies of early AD. Finally, a goodness-of-fit analysis applied at the individual subject level suggests that activity in the default-mode network may ultimately prove a sensitive and specific biomarker for incipient AD.
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            A method for functional network connectivity among spatially independent resting-state components in schizophrenia.

            Functional connectivity of the brain has been studied by analyzing correlation differences in time courses among seed voxels or regions with other voxels of the brain in healthy individuals as well as in patients with brain disorders. The spatial extent of strongly temporally coherent brain regions co-activated during rest has also been examined using independent component analysis (ICA). However, the weaker temporal relationships among ICA component time courses, which we operationally define as a measure of functional network connectivity (FNC), have not yet been studied. In this study, we propose an approach for evaluating FNC and apply it to functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) data collected from persons with schizophrenia and healthy controls. We examined the connectivity and latency among ICA component time courses to test the hypothesis that patients with schizophrenia would show increased functional connectivity and increased lag among resting state networks compared to controls. Resting state fMRI data were collected and the inter-relationships among seven selected resting state networks (identified using group ICA) were evaluated by correlating each subject's ICA time courses with one another. Patients showed higher correlation than controls among most of the dominant resting state networks. Patients also had slightly more variability in functional connectivity than controls. We present a novel approach for quantifying functional connectivity among brain networks identified with spatial ICA. Significant differences between patient and control connectivity in different networks were revealed possibly reflecting deficiencies in cortical processing in patients.
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              Functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging classification of autism.

              Group differences in resting state functional magnetic resonance imaging connectivity between individuals with autism and typically developing controls have been widely replicated for a small number of discrete brain regions, yet the whole-brain distribution of connectivity abnormalities in autism is not well characterized. It is also unclear whether functional connectivity is sufficiently robust to be used as a diagnostic or prognostic metric in individual patients with autism. We obtained pairwise functional connectivity measurements from a lattice of 7266 regions of interest covering the entire grey matter (26.4 million connections) in a well-characterized set of 40 male adolescents and young adults with autism and 40 age-, sex- and IQ-matched typically developing subjects. A single resting state blood oxygen level-dependent scan of 8 min was used for the classification in each subject. A leave-one-out classifier successfully distinguished autism from control subjects with 83% sensitivity and 75% specificity for a total accuracy of 79% (P = 1.1 × 10(-7)). In subjects 10 cm). Brain regions showing greatest differences included regions of the default mode network, superior parietal lobule, fusiform gyrus and anterior insula. Overall, classification accuracy was better for younger subjects, with differences between autism and control subjects diminishing after 19 years of age. Classification scores of unaffected siblings of individuals with autism were more similar to those of the control subjects than to those of the subjects with autism. These findings indicate feasibility of a functional connectivity magnetic resonance imaging diagnostic assay for autism.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Comput Math Methods Med
                Comput Math Methods Med
                cmmm
                Computational and Mathematical Methods in Medicine
                Hindawi
                1748-670X
                1748-6718
                2022
                4 April 2022
                : 2022
                : 3941049
                Affiliations
                1Department of Computer Science, Dr. Babasaheb Ambedkar Marathwada University, India
                2Applied College in Abqaiq, King Faisal University, P.O. Box 400, Al-Ahsa 31982, Saudi Arabia
                3Shri Shivaji Science & Arts College, Chikhli Dist. Buldana, India
                4Department of Computer Sciences and Information Technology, Albaha University, Albaha, P.O. Box 1988, Saudi Arabia
                5Department of Engineering and Computer Science, Al Baha University, Albaha, P.O. Box 1988, Saudi Arabia
                6Department of Computer Science, College of Computing and Information technology, Taif University, P.O.Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
                7Department of Computer Engineering, College of Computers and Information Technology, Taif University, P.O. Box 11099, Taif 21944, Saudi Arabia
                8College of Computer Science and Information Technology, Albaha University, Albaha, P.O. Box 1988, Saudi Arabia
                Author notes

                Academic Editor: Deepika Koundal

                Author information
                https://orcid.org/0000-0003-1822-1357
                https://orcid.org/0000-0001-6322-3963
                https://orcid.org/0000-0002-8187-2286
                Article
                10.1155/2022/3941049
                9001065
                35419082
                5e2a6d10-8fe8-40e8-b180-a9f367849fdf
                Copyright © 2022 Zeyad A. T. Ahmed et al.

                This is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 30 November 2021
                : 27 December 2021
                : 29 December 2021
                Funding
                Funded by: Taif University
                Funded by: Taif University Researchers Supporting Project
                Award ID: TURSP-2020/328
                Funded by: Deanship of Scientific Research, Vice Presidency for Graduate Studies and Scientific Research, King Faisal University
                Award ID: GRANT388
                Categories
                Research Article

                Applied mathematics
                Applied mathematics

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