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      Interaction and uptake of exosomes by ovarian cancer cells

      research-article
      1 , 2 , 2 , 1 ,
      BMC Cancer
      BioMed Central

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          Abstract

          Background

          Exosomes consist of membrane vesicles that are secreted by several cell types, including tumors and have been found in biological fluids. Exosomes interact with other cells and may serve as vehicles for the transfer of protein and RNA among cells.

          Methods

          SKOV3 exosomes were labelled with carboxyfluoresceine diacetate succinimidyl-ester and collected by ultracentrifugation. Uptake of these vesicles, under different conditions, by the same cells from where they originated was monitored by immunofluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry analysis. Lectin analysis was performed to investigate the glycosylation properties of proteins from exosomes and cellular extracts.

          Results

          In this work, the ovarian carcinoma SKOV3 cell line has been shown to internalize exosomes from the same cells via several endocytic pathways that were strongly inhibited at 4°C, indicating their energy dependence. Partial colocalization with the endosome marker EEA1 and inhibition by chlorpromazine suggested the involvement of clathrin-dependent endocytosis. Furthermore, uptake inhibition in the presence of 5-ethyl-N-isopropyl amiloride, cytochalasin D and methyl-beta-cyclodextrin suggested the involvement of additional endocytic pathways. The uptake required proteins from the exosomes and from the cells since it was inhibited after proteinase K treatments. The exosomes were found to be enriched in specific mannose- and sialic acid-containing glycoproteins. Sialic acid removal caused a small but non-significant increase in uptake. Furthermore, the monosaccharides D-galactose, α-L-fucose, α-D-mannose, D-N-acetylglucosamine and the disaccharide β-lactose reduced exosomes uptake to a comparable extent as the control D-glucose.

          Conclusions

          In conclusion, exosomes are internalized by ovarian tumor cells via various endocytic pathways and proteins from exosomes and cells are required for uptake. On the other hand, exosomes are enriched in specific glycoproteins that may constitute exosome markers. This work contributes to the knowledge about the properties and dynamics of exosomes in cancer.

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          Most cited references24

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          Cellular internalization of exosomes occurs through phagocytosis.

          Exosomes play important roles in many physiological and pathological processes. However, the exosome-cell interaction mode and the intracellular trafficking pathway of exosomes in their recipient cells remain unclear. Here, we report that exosomes derived from K562 or MT4 cells are internalized more efficiently by phagocytes than by non-phagocytic cells. Most exosomes were observed attached to the plasma membrane of non-phagocytic cells, while in phagocytic cells these exosomes were found to enter via phagocytosis. Specifically, they moved to phagosomes together with phagocytic polystyrene carboxylate-modified latex beads (biospheres) and were further sorted into phagolysosomes. Moreover, exosome internalization was dependent on the actin cytoskeleton and phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase, and could be inhibited by the knockdown of dynamin2 or overexpression of a dominant-negative form of dynamin2. Further, antibody pretreatment assays demonstrated that tim4 but not tim1 was involved in exosomes uptake. We also found that exosomes did not enter the internalization pathway involving caveolae, macropinocytosis and clathrin-coated vesicles. Our observation that the cellular uptake of exosomes occurs through phagocytosis has important implications for exosome-cell interactions and the exosome intracellular trafficking pathway.
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            Exosomes: a common pathway for a specialized function.

            Exosomes are membrane vesicles that are released by cells upon fusion of multivesicular bodies with the plasma membrane. Their molecular composition reflects their origin in endosomes as intraluminal vesicles. In addition to a common set of membrane and cytosolic molecules, exosomes harbor unique subsets of proteins linked to cell type-associated functions. Exosome secretion participates in the eradication of obsolete proteins but several findings, essentially in the immune system, indicate that exosomes constitute a potential mode of intercellular communication. Release of exosomes by tumor cells and their implication in the propagation of unconventional pathogens such as prions suggests their participation in pathological situations. These findings open up new therapeutic and diagnostic strategies.
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              Mis-assembly of clathrin lattices on endosomes reveals a regulatory switch for coated pit formation

              The clathrin-coated pit lattice is held onto the plasma membrane by an integral membrane protein that binds the clathrin AP-2 subunit with high affinity. In vitro studies have suggested that this protein controls the assembly of the pit because membrane bound AP-2 is required for lattice assembly. If so, the AP-2 binding site must be a resident protein of the coated pit and recycle with other receptors that enter cells through this pathway. Proper recycling, however, would require the switching off of AP-2 binding to allow the binding site to travel through the endocytic pathway unencumbered. Evidence for this hypothesis has been revealed by the cationic amphiphilic class of drugs (CAD), which have previously been found to inhibit receptor recycling. Incubation of human fibroblasts in the presence of these drugs caused clathrin lattices to assemble on endosomal membranes and at the same time prevented coated pit assembly at the cell surface. These effects suggest that CADs reverse an on/off switch that controls AP-2 binding to membranes. We conclude that cells have a mechanism for switching on and off AP-2 binding during the endocytic cycle.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BMC Cancer
                BMC Cancer
                BioMed Central
                1471-2407
                2011
                27 March 2011
                : 11
                : 108
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Instituto de Tecnologia Química e Biológica, Apartado 127, 2781-901 Oeiras, Portugal
                [2 ]Tumor Immunology Programme, D015-TP3, German Cancer Research Center, Heidelberg, Germany
                Article
                1471-2407-11-108
                10.1186/1471-2407-11-108
                3072949
                21439085
                5fa8012b-c380-4e50-b087-4d649056f675
                Copyright ©2011 Escrevente et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/2.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 22 November 2010
                : 27 March 2011
                Categories
                Research Article

                Oncology & Radiotherapy
                Oncology & Radiotherapy

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