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      Phase III Trial of Cisplatin Plus Gemcitabine With Either Placebo or Bevacizumab As First-Line Therapy for Nonsquamous Non–Small-Cell Lung Cancer: AVAiL

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody targeting vascular endothelial growth factor, improves survival when combined with carboplatin/paclitaxel for advanced nonsquamous non–small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC). This randomized phase III trial investigated the efficacy and safety of cisplatin/gemcitabine (CG) plus bevacizumab in this setting.

          Patients and Methods

          Patients were randomly assigned to receive cisplatin 80 mg/m 2 and gemcitabine 1,250 mg/m 2 for up to six cycles plus low-dose bevacizumab (7.5 mg/kg), high-dose bevacizumab (15 mg/kg), or placebo every 3 weeks until disease progression. The trial was not powered to compare the two doses directly. The primary end point was amended from overall survival (OS) to progression-free survival (PFS). Between February 2005 and August 2006, 1,043 patients were randomly assigned (placebo, n = 347; low dose, n = 345; high dose, n = 351).

          Results

          PFS was significantly prolonged; the hazard ratios for PFS were 0.75 (median PFS, 6.7 v 6.1 months for placebo; P = .003) in the low-dose group and 0.82 (median PFS, 6.5 v 6.1 months for placebo; P = .03) in the high-dose group compared with placebo. Objective response rates were 20.1%, 34.1%, and 30.4% for placebo, low-dose bevacizumab, and high-dose bevacizumab plus CG, respectively. Duration of follow-up was not sufficient for OS analysis. Incidence of grade 3 or greater adverse events was similar across arms. Grade ≥ 3 pulmonary hemorrhage rates were ≤ 1.5% for all arms despite 9% of patients receiving therapeutic anticoagulation.

          Conclusion

          Combining bevacizumab (7.5 or 15 mg/kg) with CG significantly improved PFS and objective response rate. Bevacizumab plus platinum-based chemotherapy offers clinical benefit for bevacizumab-eligible patients with advanced NSCLC.

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          Most cited references17

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          The biology of VEGF and its receptors.

          Vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) is a key regulator of physiological angiogenesis during embryogenesis, skeletal growth and reproductive functions. VEGF has also been implicated in pathological angiogenesis associated with tumors, intraocular neovascular disorders and other conditions. The biological effects of VEGF are mediated by two receptor tyrosine kinases (RTKs), VEGFR-1 and VEGFR-2, which differ considerably in signaling properties. Non-signaling co-receptors also modulate VEGF RTK signaling. Currently, several VEGF inhibitors are undergoing clinical testing in several malignancies. VEGF inhibition is also being tested as a strategy for the prevention of angiogenesis, vascular leakage and visual loss in age-related macular degeneration.
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            Bevacizumab plus irinotecan, fluorouracil, and leucovorin for metastatic colorectal cancer.

            Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, has shown promising preclinical and clinical activity against metastatic colorectal cancer, particularly in combination with chemotherapy. Of 813 patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer, we randomly assigned 402 to receive irinotecan, bolus fluorouracil, and leucovorin (IFL) plus bevacizumab (5 mg per kilogram of body weight every two weeks) and 411 to receive IFL plus placebo. The primary end point was overall survival. Secondary end points were progression-free survival, the response rate, the duration of the response, safety, and the quality of life. The median duration of survival was 20.3 months in the group given IFL plus bevacizumab, as compared with 15.6 months in the group given IFL plus placebo, corresponding to a hazard ratio for death of 0.66 (P<0.001). The median duration of progression-free survival was 10.6 months in the group given IFL plus bevacizumab, as compared with 6.2 months in the group given IFL plus placebo (hazard ratio for disease progression, 0.54; P<0.001); the corresponding rates of response were 44.8 percent and 34.8 percent (P=0.004). The median duration of the response was 10.4 months in the group given IFL plus bevacizumab, as compared with 7.1 months in the group given IFL plus placebo (hazard ratio for progression, 0.62; P=0.001). Grade 3 hypertension was more common during treatment with IFL plus bevacizumab than with IFL plus placebo (11.0 percent vs. 2.3 percent) but was easily managed. The addition of bevacizumab to fluorouracil-based combination chemotherapy results in statistically significant and clinically meaningful improvement in survival among patients with metastatic colorectal cancer. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              Paclitaxel-carboplatin alone or with bevacizumab for non-small-cell lung cancer.

              Bevacizumab, a monoclonal antibody against vascular endothelial growth factor, has been shown to benefit patients with a variety of cancers. Between July 2001 and April 2004, the Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) conducted a randomized study in which 878 patients with recurrent or advanced non-small-cell lung cancer (stage IIIB or IV) were assigned to chemotherapy with paclitaxel and carboplatin alone (444) or paclitaxel and carboplatin plus bevacizumab (434). Chemotherapy was administered every 3 weeks for six cycles, and bevacizumab was administered every 3 weeks until disease progression was evident or toxic effects were intolerable. Patients with squamous-cell tumors, brain metastases, clinically significant hemoptysis, or inadequate organ function or performance status (ECOG performance status, >1) were excluded. The primary end point was overall survival. The median survival was 12.3 months in the group assigned to chemotherapy plus bevacizumab, as compared with 10.3 months in the chemotherapy-alone group (hazard ratio for death, 0.79; P=0.003). The median progression-free survival in the two groups was 6.2 and 4.5 months, respectively (hazard ratio for disease progression, 0.66; P<0.001), with corresponding response rates of 35% and 15% (P<0.001). Rates of clinically significant bleeding were 4.4% and 0.7%, respectively (P<0.001). There were 15 treatment-related deaths in the chemotherapy-plus-bevacizumab group, including 5 from pulmonary hemorrhage. The addition of bevacizumab to paclitaxel plus carboplatin in the treatment of selected patients with non-small-cell lung cancer has a significant survival benefit with the risk of increased treatment-related deaths. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00021060.) 2006 Massachusetts Medical Society
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Clinical Oncology
                JCO
                American Society of Clinical Oncology (ASCO)
                0732-183X
                1527-7755
                March 10 2009
                March 10 2009
                : 27
                : 8
                : 1227-1234
                Affiliations
                [1 ]From the Krankenhaus Grosshansdorf, Grosshansdorf; Asklepios Fachkliniken München-Gauting, Muenchen-Gauting; St. Vincentius-Kliniken, Karlsruhe; Heidelberg University Medical Center, Mannheim, Germany; Third Faculty of Medicine, Charles University, Postgraduate Medical School, Prague, Czech Republic; Wielkopolskie Centrum Chorob Pluc i Gruzlicy, Poznan, Poland; Cancer Research Center, Moscow, Russia; McGill University Health Centre–Royal Victoria Hospital, Montreal, Quebec; Princess Margaret Hospital,...
                Article
                10.1200/JCO.2007.14.5466
                19188680
                6114ccb8-a49f-4965-953d-74d63cfa631c
                © 2009
                History

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