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      Inflammageing and Cardiovascular System: Focus on Cardiokines and Cardiac-Specific Biomarkers

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      International Journal of Molecular Sciences
      MDPI AG

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          Abstract

          The term “inflammageing” was introduced in 2000, with the aim of describing the chronic inflammatory state typical of elderly individuals, which is characterized by a combination of elevated levels of inflammatory biomarkers, a high burden of comorbidities, an elevated risk of disability, frailty, and premature death. Inflammageing is a hallmark of various cardiovascular diseases, including atherosclerosis, hypertension, and rapid progression to heart failure. The great experimental and clinical evidence accumulated in recent years has clearly demonstrated that early detection and counteraction of inflammageing is a promising strategy not only to prevent cardiovascular disease, but also to slow down the progressive decline of health that occurs with ageing. It is conceivable that beneficial effects of counteracting inflammageing should be most effective if implemented in the early stages, when the compensatory capacity of the organism is not completely exhausted. Early interventions and treatments require early diagnosis using reliable and cost-effective biomarkers. Indeed, recent clinical studies have demonstrated that cardiac-specific biomarkers (i.e., cardiac natriuretic peptides and cardiac troponins) are able to identify, even in the general population, the individuals at highest risk of progression to heart failure. However, further clinical studies are needed to better understand the usefulness and cost/benefit ratio of cardiac-specific biomarkers as potential targets in preventive and therapeutic strategies for early detection and counteraction of inflammageing mechanisms and in this way slowing the progressive decline of health that occurs with ageing.

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          Most cited references283

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          2021 ESC Guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of acute and chronic heart failure

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            OUP accepted manuscript

            (2020)
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              Oxidative stress, aging, and diseases

              Reactive oxygen and nitrogen species (RONS) are produced by several endogenous and exogenous processes, and their negative effects are neutralized by antioxidant defenses. Oxidative stress occurs from the imbalance between RONS production and these antioxidant defenses. Aging is a process characterized by the progressive loss of tissue and organ function. The oxidative stress theory of aging is based on the hypothesis that age-associated functional losses are due to the accumulation of RONS-induced damages. At the same time, oxidative stress is involved in several age-related conditions (ie, cardiovascular diseases [CVDs], chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, chronic kidney disease, neurodegenerative diseases, and cancer), including sarcopenia and frailty. Different types of oxidative stress biomarkers have been identified and may provide important information about the efficacy of the treatment, guiding the selection of the most effective drugs/dose regimens for patients and, if particularly relevant from a pathophysiological point of view, acting on a specific therapeutic target. Given the important role of oxidative stress in the pathogenesis of many clinical conditions and aging, antioxidant therapy could positively affect the natural history of several diseases, but further investigation is needed to evaluate the real efficacy of these therapeutic interventions. The purpose of this paper is to provide a review of literature on this complex topic of ever increasing interest.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
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                Journal
                IJMCFK
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                IJMS
                MDPI AG
                1422-0067
                January 2023
                January 03 2023
                : 24
                : 1
                : 844
                Article
                10.3390/ijms24010844
                36614282
                61d6829c-feed-4de8-b06a-1b8321eca02e
                © 2023

                https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/

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