Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the degree of malnutrition and inadequate volume control evidenced by echocardiography. Methods: In this study 72 chronic hemodialysis patients were investigated in a cross-sectional manner. The malnutrition score was calculated using Subjective Global Assessment. M-mode echocardiography was performed in all patients. Results: The highest malnutrition score (23.2 ± 1.5 points) and lowest vena cava inferior collapse index (35 ± 2%) were observed in the eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy group. The malnutrition index was found to be in positive relationship with the left atrium diameter and index, left ventricular mass and index, and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter. On the other hand, a negative correlation was detected with the vena cava inferior collapse index. When all parameters that were found to be related to malnutrition were assessed by multivariate analyses, a statistically significant relation was found between the left ventricular end-diastolic diameter and the malnutrition index. Conclusion: The results of our study show that the progressive worsening of the nutritional status follows a parallel course along with the deterioration in the echocardiographic parameters concerning hypervolemia. This in turn suggests that increasing degrees of malnutrition are associated with more profound derangements in the volume status. Volume excess might be a mechanism explaning the increased mortality and morbidity caused by malnutrition in hemodialysis patients. Owing to its cross-sectional design, this study cannot provide unequivocal evidence regarding the cause and effect relationship between volume overload and malnutrition in hemodialysis patients.