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      Relationship between the Degree of Malnutrition and Echocardiographic Parameters in Hemodialysis Patients

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          Abstract

          Background: The aim of this study is to investigate the relationship between the degree of malnutrition and inadequate volume control evidenced by echocardiography. Methods: In this study 72 chronic hemodialysis patients were investigated in a cross-sectional manner. The malnutrition score was calculated using Subjective Global Assessment. M-mode echocardiography was performed in all patients. Results: The highest malnutrition score (23.2 ± 1.5 points) and lowest vena cava inferior collapse index (35 ± 2%) were observed in the eccentric left ventricular hypertrophy group. The malnutrition index was found to be in positive relationship with the left atrium diameter and index, left ventricular mass and index, and left ventricular end-diastolic diameter. On the other hand, a negative correlation was detected with the vena cava inferior collapse index. When all parameters that were found to be related to malnutrition were assessed by multivariate analyses, a statistically significant relation was found between the left ventricular end-diastolic diameter and the malnutrition index. Conclusion: The results of our study show that the progressive worsening of the nutritional status follows a parallel course along with the deterioration in the echocardiographic parameters concerning hypervolemia. This in turn suggests that increasing degrees of malnutrition are associated with more profound derangements in the volume status. Volume excess might be a mechanism explaning the increased mortality and morbidity caused by malnutrition in hemodialysis patients. Owing to its cross-sectional design, this study cannot provide unequivocal evidence regarding the cause and effect relationship between volume overload and malnutrition in hemodialysis patients.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Echocardiographic assessment of left ventricular hypertrophy: comparison to necropsy findings.

          To determine the accuracy of echocardiographic left ventricular (LV) dimension and mass measurements for detection and quantification of LV hypertrophy, results of blindly read antemortem echocardiograms were compared with LV mass measurements made at necropsy in 55 patients. LV mass was calculated using M-mode LV measurements by Penn and American Society of Echocardiography (ASE) conventions and cube function and volume correction formulas in 52 patients. Penn-cube LV mass correlated closely with necropsy LV mass (r = 0.92, p less than 0.001) and overestimated it by only 6%; sensitivity in 18 patients with LV hypertrophy (necropsy LV mass more than 215 g) was 100% (18 of 18 patients) and specificity was 86% (29 of 34 patients). ASE-cube LV mass correlated similarly to necropsy LV mass (r = 0.90, p less than 0.001), but systematically overestimated it (by a mean of 25%); the overestimation could be corrected by the equation: LV mass = 0.80 (ASE-cube LV mass) + 0.6 g. Use of ASE measurements in the volume correction formula systematically underestimated necropsy LV mass (by a mean of 30%). In a subset of 9 patients, 3 of whom had technically inadequate M-mode echocardiograms, 2-dimensional echocardiographic (echo) LV mass by 2 methods was also significantly related to necropsy LV mass (r = 0.68, p less than 0.05 and r = 0.82, p less than 0.01). Among other indexes of LV anatomy, only measurement of myocardial cross-sectional area was acceptably accurate for quantitation of LV mass (r = 0.80, p less than 0.001) or diagnosis of LV hypertrophy (sensitivity = 72%, specificity = 94%).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)
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            Strong association between malnutrition, inflammation, and atherosclerosis in chronic renal failure.

            Atherosclerotic cardiovascular disease and malnutrition are widely recognized as leading causes of the increased morbidity and mortality observed in uremic patients. C-reactive protein (CRP), an acute-phase protein, is a predictor of cardiovascular mortality in nonrenal patient populations. In chronic renal failure (CRF), the prevalence of an acute-phase response has been associated with an increased mortality. One hundred and nine predialysis patients (age 52 +/- 1 years) with terminal CRF (glomerular filtration rate 7 +/- 1 ml/min) were studied. By using noninvasive B-mode ultrasonography, the cross-sectional carotid intima-media area was calculated, and the presence or absence of carotid plaques was determined. Nutritional status was assessed by subjective global assessment (SGA), dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA), serum albumin, serum creatinine, serum urea, and 24-hour urine urea excretion. The presence of an inflammatory reaction was assessed by CRP, fibrinogen (N = 46), and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha; N = 87). Lipid parameters, including Lp(a) and apo(a)-isoforms, as well as markers of oxidative stress (autoantibodies against oxidized low-density lipoprotein and vitamin E), were also determined. Compared with healthy controls, CRF patients had an increased mean carotid intima-media area (18.3 +/- 0.6 vs. 13.2 +/- 0.7 mm2, P or = 10 mg/liter). Malnourished patients had higher CRP levels (23 +/- 3 vs. 13 +/- 2 mg/liter, P < 0.01), elevated calculated intima-media area (20.2 +/- 0.8 vs. 16.9 +/- 0.7 mm2, P < 0.01) and a higher prevalence of carotid plaques (90 vs. 60%, P < 0.0001) compared with well-nourished patients. During stepwise multivariate analysis adjusting for age and gender, vitamin E (P < 0.05) and CRP (P < 0.05) remained associated with an increased intima-media area. The presence of carotid plaques was significantly associated with age (P < 0.001), log oxidized low-density lipoprotein (oxLDL; P < 0.01), and small apo(a) isoform size (P < 0.05) in a multivariate logistic regression model. These results indicate that the rapidly developing atherosclerosis in advanced CRF appears to be caused by a synergism of different mechanisms, such as malnutrition, inflammation, oxidative stress, and genetic components. Apart from classic risk factors, low vitamin E levels and elevated CRP levels are associated with an increased intima-media area, whereas small molecular weight apo(a) isoforms and increased levels of oxLDL are associated with the presence of carotid plaques.
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              Echocardiographic criteria for left ventricular hypertrophy: the Framingham Heart Study.

              Of 6,148 original cohort and offspring subjects of the Framingham Heart Study who underwent routine evaluation, a healthy group of 347 men (aged 42 +/- 12 years) and 517 women (aged 43 +/- 12 years) was identified to develop echocardiographic criteria for left ventricular (LV) hypertrophy. Healthy subjects were defined as normotensive, receiving no cardiac or antihypertensive medications, nonobese and free of cardiopulmonary disease. Echocardiographic criteria (in accordance with the American Society of Echocardiography convention) for LV hypertrophy, based on mean plus 2 standard deviations for LV mass, LV mass corrected for body surface area and LV mass corrected for height in this healthy sample are, respectively: 294 g, 150 g/m2 and 163 g/m in men and 198 g, 120 g/m2 and 121 g/m in women. Criteria based on LV mass/height result in higher prevalence rates of LV hypertrophy than LV mass/body surface area while still correcting for body size. The prevalence of LV hypertrophy in the entire study population (using LV mass/height criteria) is 16% in men and 19% in women. Until outcome guided criteria for LV hypertrophy are developed, application of sex-specific criteria based on a healthy population distribution of LV mass offer the best approach to echocardiographic diagnosis of LV hypertrophy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2110
                2007
                July 2007
                22 May 2007
                : 106
                : 3
                : c136-c142
                Affiliations
                Departments of aNephrology and bCardiology, Faculty of Medicine, Celal Bayar University, Manisa, Turkey
                Article
                103001 Nephron Clin Pract 2007;106:c136–c142
                10.1159/000103001
                17522472
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 2, References: 26, Pages: 1
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Hypervolemia, Malnutrition score, Left ventricular geometry

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