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      Bicycling and Walking are Associated with Different Cortical Oscillatory Dynamics

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          Abstract

          Although bicycling and walking involve similar complex coordinated movements, surprisingly Parkinson’s patients with freezing of gait typically remain able to bicycle despite severe difficulties in walking. This observation suggests functional differences in the motor networks subserving bicycling and walking. However, a direct comparison of brain activity related to bicycling and walking has never been performed, neither in healthy participants nor in patients. Such a comparison could potentially help elucidating the cortical involvement in motor control and the mechanisms through which bicycling ability may be preserved in patients with freezing of gait. The aim of this study was to contrast the cortical oscillatory dynamics involved in bicycling and walking in healthy participants. To this end, EEG and EMG data of 14 healthy participants were analyzed, who cycled on a stationary bicycle at a slow cadence of 40 revolutions per minute (rpm) and walked at 40 strides per minute (spm), respectively. Relative to walking, bicycling was associated with a stronger power decrease in the high beta band (23–35 Hz) during movement initiation and execution, followed by a stronger beta power increase after movement termination. Walking, on the other hand, was characterized by a stronger and persisting alpha power (8–12 Hz) decrease. Both bicycling and walking exhibited movement cycle-dependent power modulation in the 24–40 Hz range that was correlated with EMG activity. This modulation was significantly stronger in walking. The present findings reveal differential cortical oscillatory dynamics in motor control for two types of complex coordinated motor behavior, i.e., bicycling and walking. Bicycling was associated with a stronger sustained cortical activation as indicated by the stronger high beta power decrease during movement execution and less cortical motor control within the movement cycle. We speculate this to be due to the more continuous nature of bicycling demanding less phase-dependent sensory processing and motor planning, as opposed to walking.

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          Most cited references 68

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          Nonparametric statistical testing of EEG- and MEG-data.

          In this paper, we show how ElectroEncephaloGraphic (EEG) and MagnetoEncephaloGraphic (MEG) data can be analyzed statistically using nonparametric techniques. Nonparametric statistical tests offer complete freedom to the user with respect to the test statistic by means of which the experimental conditions are compared. This freedom provides a straightforward way to solve the multiple comparisons problem (MCP) and it allows to incorporate biophysically motivated constraints in the test statistic, which may drastically increase the sensitivity of the statistical test. The paper is written for two audiences: (1) empirical neuroscientists looking for the most appropriate data analysis method, and (2) methodologists interested in the theoretical concepts behind nonparametric statistical tests. For the empirical neuroscientist, a large part of the paper is written in a tutorial-like fashion, enabling neuroscientists to construct their own statistical test, maximizing the sensitivity to the expected effect. And for the methodologist, it is explained why the nonparametric test is formally correct. This means that we formulate a null hypothesis (identical probability distribution in the different experimental conditions) and show that the nonparametric test controls the false alarm rate under this null hypothesis.
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            FieldTrip: Open Source Software for Advanced Analysis of MEG, EEG, and Invasive Electrophysiological Data

            This paper describes FieldTrip, an open source software package that we developed for the analysis of MEG, EEG, and other electrophysiological data. The software is implemented as a MATLAB toolbox and includes a complete set of consistent and user-friendly high-level functions that allow experimental neuroscientists to analyze experimental data. It includes algorithms for simple and advanced analysis, such as time-frequency analysis using multitapers, source reconstruction using dipoles, distributed sources and beamformers, connectivity analysis, and nonparametric statistical permutation tests at the channel and source level. The implementation as toolbox allows the user to perform elaborate and structured analyses of large data sets using the MATLAB command line and batch scripting. Furthermore, users and developers can easily extend the functionality and implement new algorithms. The modular design facilitates the reuse in other software packages.
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              Beta-band oscillations--signalling the status quo?

              In this review, we consider the potential functional role of beta-band oscillations, which at present is not yet well understood. We discuss evidence from recent studies on top-down mechanisms involved in cognitive processing, on the motor system and on the pathophysiology of movement disorders that suggest a unifying hypothesis: beta-band activity seems related to the maintenance of the current sensorimotor or cognitive state. We hypothesize that beta oscillations and/or coupling in the beta-band are expressed more strongly if the maintenance of the status quo is intended or predicted, than if a change is expected. Moreover, we suggest that pathological enhancement of beta-band activity is likely to result in an abnormal persistence of the status quo and a deterioration of flexible behavioural and cognitive control. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Affiliations
                1Institute of Clinical Neuroscience and Medical Psychology, Medical Faculty, Heinrich Heine University Düsseldorf Düsseldorf, Germany
                2Department of Medical Engineering, Ruhr-University Bochum Bochum, Germany
                3Department of Computer and Information Science, University of Konstanz Konstanz, Germany
                4Zukunftskolleg and Department of Psychology, University of Konstanz Konstanz, Germany
                Author notes

                Edited by: Klaus Gramann, Berlin Institute of Technology, Germany

                Reviewed by: Johanna Wagner, Graz University of Technology, Austria; Pedro M. R. Reis, Friedrich-Alexander Universität Erlangen-Nürnberg, Germany; Helen Jingi Huang, University of Michigan, USA

                *Correspondence: Lena Storzer lena.storzer@ 123456hhu.de
                Contributors
                Journal
                Front Hum Neurosci
                Front Hum Neurosci
                Front. Hum. Neurosci.
                Frontiers in Human Neuroscience
                Frontiers Media S.A.
                1662-5161
                19 February 2016
                2016
                : 10
                10.3389/fnhum.2016.00061
                4759288
                26924977
                Copyright © 2016 Storzer, Butz, Hirschmann, Abbasi, Gratkowski, Saupe, Schnitzler and Dalal.

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY). The use, distribution and reproduction in other forums is permitted, provided the original author(s) or licensor are credited and that the original publication in this journal is cited, in accordance with accepted academic practice. No use, distribution or reproduction is permitted which does not comply with these terms.

                Counts
                Figures: 5, Tables: 0, Equations: 0, References: 71, Pages: 12, Words: 9266
                Categories
                Neuroscience
                Original Research

                Neurosciences

                bicycling, eeg, walking, motor control, oscillations, sensorimotor cortex

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