To study the cytohistologic features of combined hepatocellular-cholangiocarcinoma (CHCC-CC) in fine needle aspiration biopsy (FNAB) material. Six hepatic FNAB cases with cell blocks (five) and hepatic resections (two) were analyzed cytohistologically and immunohistochemically. The six cases were diagnosed as CHCC-CC based on clinicopathologic correlation. Unequivocal hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cells corresponding to Edmondson and Steiner's grade 3 lesions were identified in the FNAB in three instances. Adenocarcinoma, represented by cohesive columnar cells with ovoid, basal nuclei displaying nuclear palisading, acini and/or papillary structures with variable intracytoplasmic intraacinar or brush border mucin production, was identified in all cases. Intermediate cells with hybrid/polymorphic cytologic features straddling malignant hepatocytes and glandular cells were identified in five instances. Tissue alpha-fetoprotein was negative. There was brush border and/or diffuse cytoplasmic p-carcinoembryonic antigen immunoreactivity in the glandular elements. FNAB diagnosis of CHCC-CC is possible if the clinical, cytohistologic and immunohistochemical findings support the presence of HCC and adenocarcinoma. Intermediate cells pose a great challenge to recognize and define: they tend to lose the classic cytologic features of malignant hepatocytes and acquire glandular characteristics. At the very least, there should be a high index of suspicion. These cases underscore the necessity for clinicopathologic correlation in enhancing the precision of FNAB diagnoses.