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      Use of an acceleration data logger to measure diel activity patterns in captive whitetip reef sharks,Triaenodon obesus

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          Standardized diet compositions and trophic levels of sharks

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            Moving towards acceleration for estimates of activity-specific metabolic rate in free-living animals: the case of the cormorant.

            1. Time and energy are key currencies in animal ecology, and judicious management of these is a primary focus for natural selection. At present, however, there are only two main methods for estimation of rate of energy expenditure in the field, heart rate and doubly labelled water, both of which have been used with success; but both also have their limitations. 2. The deployment of data loggers that measure acceleration is emerging as a powerful tool for quantifying the behaviour of free-living animals. Given that animal movement requires the use of energy, the accelerometry technique potentially has application in the quantification of rate of energy expenditure during activity. 3. In the present study, we test the hypothesis that acceleration can serve as a proxy for rate of energy expenditure in free-living animals. We measured rate of energy expenditure as rates of O2 consumption (VO2) and CO2 production (VCO2) in great cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) at rest and during pedestrian exercise. VO2 and VCO2 were then related to overall dynamic body acceleration (ODBA) measured with an externally attached three-axis accelerometer. 4. Both VO2 and VCO2 were significantly positively associated with ODBA in great cormorants. This suggests that accelerometric measurements of ODBA can be used to estimate VO2 and VCO2 and, with some additional assumptions regarding metabolic substrate use and the energy equivalence of O2 and CO2, that ODBA can be used to estimate the activity specific rate of energy expenditure of free-living cormorants. 5. To verify that the approach identifies expected trends in from situations with variable power requirements, we measured ODBA in free-living imperial cormorants (Phalacrocorax atriceps) during foraging trips. We compared ODBA during return and outward foraging flights, when birds are expected to be laden and not laden with captured fish, respectively. We also examined changes in ODBA during the descent phase of diving, when power requirements are predicted to decrease with depth due to changes in buoyancy associated with compression of plumage and respiratory air. 6. In free-living imperial cormorants, ODBA, and hence estimated VO2, was higher during the return flight of a foraging bout, and decreased with depth during the descent phase of a dive, supporting the use of accelerometry for the determination of activity-specific rate of energy expenditure.
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              The Role of Sharks and Longline Fisheries in a Pelagic Ecosystem of the Central Pacific

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Aquatic Living Resources
                Aquat. Living Resour.
                EDP Sciences
                0990-7440
                1765-2952
                October 2007
                January 2008
                : 20
                : 4
                : 299-305
                Article
                10.1051/alr:2008006
                649e685d-7ace-4b10-9189-6028b8182a6f
                © 2007
                Product
                Self URI (article page): http://www.alr-journal.org/10.1051/alr:2008006

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