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      The galileon as a local modification of gravity

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          Abstract

          In the DGP model, the ``self-accelerating'' solution is plagued by a ghost instability, which makes the solution untenable. This fact as well as all interesting departures from GR are fully captured by a four-dimensional effective Lagrangian, valid at distances smaller than the present Hubble scale. The 4D effective theory involves a relativistic scalar \pi, universally coupled to matter and with peculiar derivative self-interactions. In this paper, we study the connection between self-acceleration and the presence of ghosts for a quite generic class of theories that modify gravity in the infrared. These theories are defined as those that at distances shorter than cosmological, reduce to a certain generalization of the DGP 4D effective theory. We argue that for infrared modifications of GR locally due to a universally coupled scalar, our generalization is the only one that allows for a robust implementation of the Vainshtein effect--the decoupling of the scalar from matter in gravitationally bound systems--necessary to recover agreement with solar system tests. Our generalization involves an internal ``galilean'' invariance, under which \pi's gradient shifts by a constant. This symmetry constrains the structure of the \pi Lagrangian so much so that in 4D there exist only five terms that can yield sizable non-linearities without introducing ghosts. We show that for such theories in fact there are ``self-accelerating'' deSitter solutions with no ghost-like instabilities. In the presence of compact sources, these solutions can support spherically symmetric, Vainshtein-like non-linear perturbations that are also stable against small fluctuations. [Short version for arxiv]

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          4D Gravity on a Brane in 5D Minkowski Space

          We suggest a mechanism by which four-dimensional Newtonian gravity emerges on a 3-brane in 5D Minkowski space with an infinite size extra dimension. The worldvolume theory gives rise to the correct 4D potential at short distances whereas at large distances the potential is that of a 5D theory. We discuss some phenomenological issues in this framework.
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            Nonperturbative Continuity in Graviton Mass versus Perturbative Discontinuity

            We address the question whether a graviton could have a small nonzero mass. The issue is subtle for two reasons: there is a discontinuity in the mass in the lowest tree-level approximation, and, moreover, the nonlinear four-dimensional theory of a massive graviton is not defined unambiguously. First, we reiterate the old argument that for the vanishing graviton mass the lowest tree-level approximation breaks down since the higher order corrections are singular in the graviton mass. However, there exist nonperturbative solutions which correspond to the summation of the singular terms and these solutions are continuous in the graviton mass. Furthermore, we study a completely nonlinear and generally covariant five-dimensional model which mimics the properties of the four-dimensional theory of massive gravity. We show that the exact solutions of the model are continuous in the mass, yet the perturbative expansion exhibits the discontinuity in the leading order and the singularities in higher orders as in the four-dimensional case. Based on exact cosmological solutions of the model we argue that the helicity-zero graviton state which is responsible for the perturbative discontinuity decouples from the matter in the limit of vanishing graviton mass in the full classical theory.
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              Diluting Cosmological Constant In Infinite Volume Extra Dimensions

              We argue that the cosmological constant problem can be solved in a braneworld model with infinite-volume extra dimensions, avoiding no-go arguments applicable to theories that are four-dimensional in the infrared. Gravity on the brane becomes higher-dimensional at super-Hubble distances, which entails that the relation between the acceleration rate and vacuum energy density flips upside down compared to the conventional one. The acceleration rate decreases with increasing the energy density. The experimentally acceptable rate is obtained for the energy density larger than (1 TeV)\(^4\). The results are stable under quantum corrections because supersymmetry is broken only on the brane and stays exact in the bulk of infinite volume extra space. Consistency of 4D gravity and cosmology on the brane requires the quantum gravity scale to be around \(10^{-3}\) eV. Testable predictions emerging within this approach are: (i) simultaneous modifications of gravity at sub-millimeter and the Hubble scales; (ii) Hagedorn-type saturation in TeV energy collisions due to the Regge spectrum with the spacing equal to \(10^{-3}\) eV.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                13 November 2008
                2009-11-27
                Article
                10.1103/PhysRevD.79.064036
                0811.2197
                64d52a48-4b52-4617-8879-e5e824a2e6e7

                http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

                History
                Custom metadata
                Phys.Rev.D79:064036,2009
                35 pages; minor modifications, a typo corrected in eq. (114)
                hep-th astro-ph gr-qc

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