Secondary hyperparathyroidism is common in chronic renal failure and is due to inadequate synthesis of calcitriol, the active metabolite of vitamin D. Intravenous administration of alphacalcidol, a synthetic analogue which is metabolized to calcitriol, was given during 12 weeks to 51 patients on chronic hemodialysis in doses between 1 and 4 μg/dialysis session. The treatment caused a modest rise, by 0.25 mmol/l, in serum calcium but a 60% reduction of intact serum PTH concentrations. Most patients acquired normal PTH values and hypercalcemia was easily avoided by dose adjustments. There was a significant reduction in serum PTH within the 1st week before the serum calcium concentrations were increased, but after that time the induced suppression of PTH was correlated to the induced rise in serum calcium. These observations are compatible with the view that calcitriol exerts both a direct inhibition of PTH release and increases the gland’s sensitivity to calcium. The major implication of the study is that intravenous treatment with alphacalcidol is of great clinical value since it is easy to administer and provides suppression of hypersecretion of PTH with few side effects.