52
views
0
recommends
+1 Recommend
0 collections
    0
    shares
      • Record: found
      • Abstract: found
      • Article: found
      Is Open Access

      Chronic Exposure to Deoxynivalenol Has No Influence on the Oral Bioavailability of Fumonisin B 1 in Broiler Chickens

      research-article

      Read this article at

      Bookmark
          There is no author summary for this article yet. Authors can add summaries to their articles on ScienceOpen to make them more accessible to a non-specialist audience.

          Abstract

          Both deoxynivalenol (DON) and fumonisin B 1 (FB 1) are common contaminants of feed. Fumonisins (FBs) in general have a very limited oral bioavailability in healthy animals. Previous studies have demonstrated that chronic exposure to DON impairs the intestinal barrier function and integrity, by affecting the intestinal surface area and function of the tight junctions. This might influence the oral bioavailability of FB 1, and possibly lead to altered toxicity of this mycotoxin. A toxicokinetic study was performed with two groups of 6 broiler chickens, which were all administered an oral bolus of 2.5 mg FBs/kg BW after three-week exposure to either uncontaminated feed (group 1) or feed contaminated with 3.12 mg DON/kg feed (group 2). No significant differences in toxicokinetic parameters of FB 1 could be demonstrated between the groups. Also, no increased or decreased body exposure to FB 1 was observed, since the relative oral bioavailability of FB 1 after chronic DON exposure was 92.2%.

          Related collections

          Most cited references 41

          • Record: found
          • Abstract: found
          • Article: found
          Is Open Access

          Current Situation of Mycotoxin Contamination and Co-occurrence in Animal Feed—Focus on Europe

          Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites produced by fungi especially those belonging to the genus Aspergillus, Penicillum and Fusarium. Mycotoxin contamination can occur in all agricultural commodities in the field and/or during storage, if conditions are favourable to fungal growth. Regarding animal feed, five mycotoxins (aflatoxins, deoxynivalenol, zearalenone, fumonisins and ochratoxin A) are covered by EU legislation (regulation or recommendation). Transgressions of these limits are rarely observed in official monitoring programs. However, low level contamination by Fusarium toxins is very common (e.g., deoxynivalenol (DON) is typically found in more than 50% of the samples) and co-contamination is frequently observed. Multi-mycotoxin studies reported 75%–100% of the samples to contain more than one mycotoxin which could impact animal health at already low doses. Co-occurrence of mycotoxins is likely to arise for at least three different reasons (i) most fungi are able to simultaneously produce a number of mycotoxins, (ii) commodities can be contaminated by several fungi, and (iii) completed feed is made from various commodities. In the present paper, we reviewed the data published since 2004 concerning the contamination of animal feed with single or combinations of mycotoxins and highlighted the occurrence of these co-contaminations.
            Bookmark
            • Record: found
            • Abstract: found
            • Article: found
            Is Open Access

            Modulation of Intestinal Functions Following Mycotoxin Ingestion: Meta-Analysis of Published Experiments in Animals

            Mycotoxins are secondary metabolites of fungi that can cause serious health problems in animals, and may result in severe economic losses. Deleterious effects of these feed contaminants in animals are well documented, ranging from growth impairment, decreased resistance to pathogens, hepato- and nephrotoxicity to death. By contrast, data with regard to their impact on intestinal functions are more limited. However, intestinal cells are the first cells to be exposed to mycotoxins, and often at higher concentrations than other tissues. In addition, mycotoxins specifically target high protein turnover- and activated-cells, which are predominant in gut epithelium. Therefore, intestinal investigations have gained significant interest over the last decade, and some publications have demonstrated that mycotoxins are able to compromise several key functions of the gastrointestinal tract, including decreased surface area available for nutrient absorption, modulation of nutrient transporters, or loss of barrier function. In addition some mycotoxins facilitate persistence of intestinal pathogens and potentiate intestinal inflammation. By contrast, the effect of these fungal metabolites on the intestinal microbiota is largely unknown. This review focuses on mycotoxins which are of concern in terms of occurrence and toxicity, namely: aflatoxins, ochratoxin A and Fusarium toxins. Results from nearly 100 published experiments (in vitro, ex vivo and in vivo) were analyzed with a special attention to the doses used.
              Bookmark
              • Record: found
              • Abstract: found
              • Article: not found

              Mycotoxin occurrence in feed and feed raw materials worldwide: long-term analysis with special focus on Europe and Asia.

              During an 8-year period, 17 316 samples of feed and feed raw materials from all over the world were analysed for contamination with aflatoxins, ochratoxin A, zearalenone, deoxynivalenol and fumonisins. Overall, 72% of the samples tested positive for at least one mycotoxin and 38% were found to be co-contaminated. Mycotoxin concentrations were generally low and the majority of the samples were compliant with the most stringent EU guidance values or maximum levels for mycotoxins in feed. However, in their present state these regulations do not address co-contamination and associated risks. Long-term trends are difficult to establish as strong yearly variations were observed regarding mycotoxin prevalence and contamination levels. In some cases unusual weather conditions can be linked with high observed mycotoxin loads. An exception to this rule is South-East Asia, where a steady increase of aflatoxin prevalence has been observed. The percentage of aflatoxin-positive samples in this region rose from 32% in 2005 to 71% in 2011. © 2013 Society of Chemical Industry.
                Bookmark

                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Role: Academic Editor
                Journal
                Toxins (Basel)
                Toxins (Basel)
                toxins
                Toxins
                MDPI
                2072-6651
                16 February 2015
                February 2015
                : 7
                : 2
                : 560-571
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Pharmacology, Toxicology and Biochemistry, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, Merelbeke 9820, Belgium; E-Mails: Mathias.Devreese@ 123456ugent.be (M.D.); Siegrid.DeBaere@ 123456ugent.be (S.D.B.); Siska.Croubels@ 123456ugent.be (S.C.)
                [2 ]Department of Pathology, Bacteriology and Avian Diseases, Faculty of Veterinary Medicine, Ghent University, Salisburylaan 133, Merelbeke 9820, Belgium; E-Mails: Filip.VanImmerseel@ 123456ugent.be (F.V.I.); An.Martel@ 123456ugent.be (A.M.)
                [3 ]Biomin Research Center, Technopark 1, Tulln 3430, Austria; E-Mail: Sabine.Hessenberger@ 123456biomin.net
                Author notes
                [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: Gunther.Antonissen@ 123456ugent.be ; Tel.: +32-9-264-7434; Fax: +32-6-264-7497.
                Article
                toxins-07-00560
                10.3390/toxins7020560
                4344641
                25690690
                © 2015 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Communication

                Comments

                Comment on this article