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      Aberrant Lipid Metabolism in Hepatocellular Carcinoma Revealed by Liver Lipidomics

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          Abstract

          Background: The aim of this study was to characterize the disorder of lipid metabolism in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC). HCC is a worldwide disease. The research into the disorder of lipid metabolism in HCC is very limited. Study of lipid metabolism in liver cancer tissue may have the potential to provide new insight into HCC mechanisms. Methods: A lipidomics study of HCC based on Ultra high performance liquid chromatography-electronic spray ionization-QTOF mass spectrometer (UPLC-ESI-QTOF MS) and Matrix assisted laser desorption ionization-fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometer (MALDI-FTICR MS) was performed. Results: Triacylglycerols (TAGs) with the number of double bond (DB) > 2 (except 56:5 and 56:4 TAG) were significantly down-regulated; conversely, others (except 52:2 TAG) were greatly up-regulated in HCC tissues. Moreover, the more serious the disease was, the higher the saturated TAG concentration and the lower the polyunsaturated TAG concentration were in HCC tissues. The phosphatidylcholine (PC), phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) were altered in a certain way. Sphingomyelin (SM) was up-regulated and ceramide (Cer) were down-regulated in HCC tissues. Conclusions: To our knowledge, this is the first such report showing a unique trend of TAG, PC, PE and PI. The use of polyunsaturated fatty acids, like eicosapentanoic and docosahexanoic acid, as supplementation, proposed for the treatment of Non-alcoholic steatohepatitis (NASH), may also be effective for the treatment of HCC.

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          Most cited references 36

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          Cancer statistics, 2014.

          Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths that will occur in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival. Incidence data were collected by the National Cancer Institute, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries and mortality data were collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. A total of 1,665,540 new cancer cases and 585,720 cancer deaths are projected to occur in the United States in 2014. During the most recent 5 years for which there are data (2006-2010), delay-adjusted cancer incidence rates declined slightly in men (by 0.6% per year) and were stable in women, while cancer death rates decreased by 1.8% per year in men and by 1.4% per year in women. The combined cancer death rate (deaths per 100,000 population) has been continuously declining for 2 decades, from a peak of 215.1 in 1991 to 171.8 in 2010. This 20% decline translates to the avoidance of approximately 1,340,400 cancer deaths (952,700 among men and 387,700 among women) during this time period. The magnitude of the decline in cancer death rates from 1991 to 2010 varies substantially by age, race, and sex, ranging from no decline among white women aged 80 years and older to a 55% decline among black men aged 40 years to 49 years. Notably, black men experienced the largest drop within every 10-year age group. Further progress can be accelerated by applying existing cancer control knowledge across all segments of the population. © 2014 American Cancer Society, Inc.
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            Harmonizing the metabolic syndrome: a joint interim statement of the International Diabetes Federation Task Force on Epidemiology and Prevention; National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute; American Heart Association; World Heart Federation; International Atherosclerosis Society; and International Association for the Study of Obesity.

            A cluster of risk factors for cardiovascular disease and type 2 diabetes mellitus, which occur together more often than by chance alone, have become known as the metabolic syndrome. The risk factors include raised blood pressure, dyslipidemia (raised triglycerides and lowered high-density lipoprotein cholesterol), raised fasting glucose, and central obesity. Various diagnostic criteria have been proposed by different organizations over the past decade. Most recently, these have come from the International Diabetes Federation and the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute. The main difference concerns the measure for central obesity, with this being an obligatory component in the International Diabetes Federation definition, lower than in the American Heart Association/National Heart, Lung, and Blood Institute criteria, and ethnic specific. The present article represents the outcome of a meeting between several major organizations in an attempt to unify criteria. It was agreed that there should not be an obligatory component, but that waist measurement would continue to be a useful preliminary screening tool. Three abnormal findings out of 5 would qualify a person for the metabolic syndrome. A single set of cut points would be used for all components except waist circumference, for which further work is required. In the interim, national or regional cut points for waist circumference can be used.
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              Major lipids, apolipoproteins, and risk of vascular disease.

              Associations of major lipids and apolipoproteins with the risk of vascular disease have not been reliably quantified. To assess major lipids and apolipoproteins in vascular risk. Individual records were supplied on 302,430 people without initial vascular disease from 68 long-term prospective studies, mostly in Europe and North America. During 2.79 million person-years of follow-up, there were 8857 nonfatal myocardial infarctions, 3928 coronary heart disease [CHD] deaths, 2534 ischemic strokes, 513 hemorrhagic strokes, and 2536 unclassified strokes. Hazard ratios (HRs), adjusted for several conventional factors, were calculated for 1-SD higher values: 0.52 log(e) triglyceride, 15 mg/dL high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), 43 mg/dL non-HDL-C, 29 mg/dL apolipoprotein AI, 29 mg/dL apolipoprotein B, and 33 mg/dL directly measured low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C). Within-study regression analyses were adjusted for within-person variation and combined using meta-analysis. The rates of CHD per 1000 person-years in the bottom and top thirds of baseline lipid distributions, respectively, were 2.6 and 6.2 with triglyceride, 6.4 and 2.4 with HDL-C, and 2.3 and 6.7 with non-HDL-C. Adjusted HRs for CHD were 0.99 (95% CI, 0.94-1.05) with triglyceride, 0.78 (95% CI, 0.74-0.82) with HDL-C, and 1.50 (95% CI, 1.39-1.61) with non-HDL-C. Hazard ratios were at least as strong in participants who did not fast as in those who did. The HR for CHD was 0.35 (95% CI, 0.30-0.42) with a combination of 80 mg/dL lower non-HDL-C and 15 mg/dL higher HDL-C. For the subset with apolipoproteins or directly measured LDL-C, HRs were 1.50 (95% CI, 1.38-1.62) with the ratio non-HDL-C/HDL-C, 1.49 (95% CI, 1.39-1.60) with the ratio apo B/apo AI, 1.42 (95% CI, 1.06-1.91) with non-HDL-C, and 1.38 (95% CI, 1.09-1.73) with directly measured LDL-C. Hazard ratios for ischemic stroke were 1.02 (95% CI, 0.94-1.11) with triglyceride, 0.93 (95% CI, 0.84-1.02) with HDL-C, and 1.12 (95% CI, 1.04-1.20) with non-HDL-C. Lipid assessment in vascular disease can be simplified by measurement of either total and HDL cholesterol levels or apolipoproteins without the need to fast and without regard to triglyceride.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                MDPI
                1422-0067
                28 November 2017
                December 2017
                : 18
                : 12
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Hepatobiliary Surgery, Peking University People’s Hospital, Beijing 100044, China; lizhao@ 123456bjmu.edu.cn (Z.L.); cx_2077@ 123456bjmu.edu.cn (X.C.); gandanwk@ 123456vip.sina.com (J.Z.)
                [2 ]Beijing National Laboratory for Molecular Sciences, Key Laboratory of Analytical Chemistry for Living Biosystems, Institute of Chemistry Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Mass Spectrum Center, Beijing 100190, China; guanming@ 123456iccas.ac.cn (M.G.); linyu@ 123456iccas.ac.cn (Y.L.); zhangyy@ 123456iccas.ac.cn (Y.Z.)
                [3 ]Graduate School, University of Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100049, China
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: zhenwenzhao@ 123456iccas.ac.cn ; Tel.: +86-10-6256-1239
                Article
                ijms-18-02550
                10.3390/ijms18122550
                5751153
                29182572
                © 2017 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Article

                Molecular biology

                triacylglycerols, phosphatidylcholine, ceramide, mass spectrometry, uplc-esi-qtof ms

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