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      Long-Term in vitro Expansion of Retinal Progenitor Cells by Culturing Intact Neurospheres in Monolayer

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          Abstract

          This study developed a modified monolayer culture technique for expansion of retinal progenitor cells in vitro. Using this method, spheres collected by low centrifugation from free floating cultures were re-seeded onto poly- D-lysine pre-coated flasks, and cultured in the retinal progenitor cells medium (including fibrous growth factor, epidermal growth factor and leukemia inhibitor factor) plus 5% FBS for the first 24 h, then FBS was removed. These cultured cells were proliferative, and in addition to expressing the neuroectodermal marker nestin they were multipotential. By immunocytochemistry and FACS analysis, we demonstrated that the percentage of nestin-expressing cells in passage 2 and passage 8 was 92.5 and 85.5%, respectively, which was greater than the percentage of their counterparts, 81.9 and 76.2%, in simple adhesive cultures (p < 0.05). Moreover, these cells preferentially differentiated into retinal neurons rather than glial cells.

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          Most cited references 13

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          CNS stem cells express a new class of intermediate filament protein.

          Multipotential CNS stem cells receive and implement instructions governing differentiation to diverse neuronal and glial fates. Exploration of the mechanisms generating the many cell types of the brain depends crucially on markers identifying the stem cell state. We describe a gene whose expression distinguishes the stem cells from the more differentiated cells in the neural tube. This gene was named nestin because it is specifically expressed in neuroepithelial stem cells. The predicted amino acid sequence of the nestin gene product shows that nestin defines a distinct sixth class of intermediate filament protein. These observations extend a model in which transitions in intermediate filament gene expression reflect major steps in the pathway of neural differentiation.
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            Vertebrate neural cell-fate determination: lessons from the retina.

            Postmitotic neurons are produced from a pool of cycling progenitors in an orderly fashion during development. Studies of cell-fate determination in the vertebrate retina have uncovered several fundamental principles by which this is achieved. Most notably, a model for vertebrate cell-fate determination has been proposed that combines findings on the relative roles of extrinsic and intrinsic regulators in controlling cell-fate choices. At the heart of the model is the proposal that progenitors pass through intrinsically determined competence states, during which they are capable of giving rise to a limited subset of cell types under the influence of extrinsic signals.
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              Retinal stem cells in the adult mammalian eye.

              The mature mammalian retina is thought to lack regenerative capacity. Here, we report the identification of a stem cell in the adult mouse eye, which represents a possible substrate for retinal regeneration. Single pigmented ciliary margin cells clonally proliferate in vitro to form sphere colonies of cells that can differentiate into retinal-specific cell types, including rod photoreceptors, bipolar neurons, and Müller glia. Adult retinal stem cells are localized to the pigmented ciliary margin and not to the central and peripheral retinal pigmented epithelium, indicating that these cells may be homologous to those found in the eye germinal zone of other nonmammalian vertebrates.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                ORE
                Ophthalmic Res
                10.1159/issn.0030-3747
                Ophthalmic Research
                S. Karger AG
                0030-3747
                1423-0259
                2008
                October 2008
                28 May 2008
                : 40
                : 6
                : 291-297
                Affiliations
                aState Key Laboratory of Ophthalmology, Zhongshan Ophthalmic Center, Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, bJiangxi Eye Center, The Jiangxi Provincial People’s Hospital, Nanchang, Jiangxi Province, China
                Article
                134927 Ophthalmic Res 2008;40:291–297
                10.1159/000134927
                18506110
                © 2008 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 15, Pages: 7
                Categories
                Original Paper

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