This study builds on earlier work by assessing the long-term impact of a public hospital performance report on both consumers and hospitals. In doing so, we shed light on the relative importance of alternative assumptions about what stimulates quality improvements. The findings indicate that making performance data public results in improvements in the clinical area reported upon. An earlier investigation indicated that hospitals included in the public report believed that the report would affect their public image. Indeed, consumer surveys suggest that inclusion did affect hospitals' reputations.