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Event-related EEG/MEG synchronization and desynchronization: basic principles.

Clinical Neurophysiology

Cortical Synchronization, physiology, Movement, Memory, Magnetoencephalography, Humans, Evoked Potentials, Electroencephalography

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      Abstract

      An internally or externally paced event results not only in the generation of an event-related potential (ERP) but also in a change in the ongoing EEG/MEG in form of an event-related desynchronization (ERD) or event-related synchronization (ERS). The ERP on the one side and the ERD/ERS on the other side are different responses of neuronal structures in the brain. While the former is phase-locked, the latter is not phase-locked to the event. The most important difference between both phenomena is that the ERD/ERS is highly frequency band-specific, whereby either the same or different locations on the scalp can display ERD and ERS simultaneously. Quantification of ERD/ERS in time and space is demonstrated on data from a number of movement experiments.

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      Oscillatory responses in cat visual cortex exhibit inter-columnar synchronization which reflects global stimulus properties.

      A fundamental step in visual pattern recognition is the establishment of relations between spatially separate features. Recently, we have shown that neurons in the cat visual cortex have oscillatory responses in the range 40-60 Hz (refs 1, 2) which occur in synchrony for cells in a functional column and are tightly correlated with a local oscillatory field potential. This led us to hypothesize that the synchronization of oscillatory responses of spatially distributed, feature selective cells might be a way to establish relations between features in different parts of the visual field. In support of this hypothesis, we demonstrate here that neurons in spatially separate columns can synchronize their oscillatory responses. The synchronization has, on average, no phase difference, depends on the spatial separation and the orientation preference of the cells and is influenced by global stimulus properties.
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        Digital Bispectral Analysis and Its Applications to Nonlinear Wave Interactions

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          Synchronization of cortical activity and its putative role in information processing and learning.

           Steven Singer (1992)
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            10576479

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