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      A Cost-Effectiveness Analysis Of Pregabalin For The Treatment Of Patients With Chronic Cervical Pain With A Neuropathic Component In Japan

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          Abstract

          Purpose

          To evaluate the cost-effectiveness of pregabalin versus other analgesics among patients with chronic cervical pain with neuropathic components during routine clinical practice in Japan.

          Patients and methods

          The analysis considered patients with chronic cervical pain with a neuropathic pain component (radiating pain to the upper limb) and who were treated with pregabalin with or without other analgesics (pregabalin-containing treatments) or other analgesics alone (usual care) for 8 weeks. Other analgesics included non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), weak opioids, antidepressants, and antiepileptic drugs. A Markov cohort simulation model was constructed to estimate costs and effectiveness (in terms of quality-adjusted life-years, QALYs) of each treatment over a 12-month time horizon. In the model, patients transitioned among three states of pain severity (no/mild, moderate, and severe). Data were derived from a previous observational study (pregabalin-containing treatments, n = 138; usual care, n = 211). Cost inputs included medical costs and productivity losses. QALYs were calculated using the EuroQol five-dimensional, five-level questionnaire. The cost-effectiveness was evaluated using incremental cost-effectiveness ratios (ICERs). Sensitivity analyses were conducted to assess the robustness of results.

          Results

          From the payer’s perspective, pregabalin-containing treatments were more costly (JPY 61,779 versus JPY 26,428) but also more effective (0.763 QALYs versus 0.727 QALYs) than the usual care, with an ICER of JPY 970,314 per QALY gained. From the societal perspective, which also included productivity losses, the ICER reduced to JPY 458,307 per QALY gained. One-way sensitivity analyses demonstrated the robustness of the results. Given a hypothetical threshold value of one additional QALY of JPY 5,000,000, the probability of pregabalin-containing treatments being cost-effective was 100%.

          Conclusion

          Compared with using other analgesics alone, the use of pregabalin, alone or in addition to other analgesics, was cost-effective for the treatment of chronic cervical pain with a neuropathic pain component in Japan.

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          Most cited references 26

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          Prevalence and characteristics of chronic musculoskeletal pain in Japan

          Background This cross-sectional study was conducted to obtain epidemiologic data on chronic musculoskeletal pain in the Japanese people, and with it a better understanding of the actual conditions and problems involved. Methods A questionnaire covering basic information, chronic musculoskeletal pain, daily life, quality of life, and social loss was prepared and mailed to 11507 individuals aged 18 years or older. Subjects were selected randomly nationwide in accordance with the demographic composition of Japan. Results The prevalence of chronic musculoskeletal pain was 15.4%. The prevalence was highest in people in their 30s to 50s. Pain occurred most frequently in the low back, neck, shoulder, and knee. Among symptomatic subjects, 42% sought treatment, by visiting a medical institution (19%), taking folk remedies (20%), or both (3%). Treatment was generally prolonged, with 70% of those treated reporting treatment durations of more than a year. Although 69% reported that their symptoms had improved, 30% reported unchanged or aggravated symptoms and dissatisfaction with treatment. Among symptomatic subjects, a high percentage of both men and women had lost jobs, left school, been absent from work or school, or had changed jobs. Basic activities of daily living (ADL) were disturbed in men, and the instrumental ADL (IADL) score was low in women. SF-36 scale scores were significantly lower in every area for subjects with chronic pain. Conclusions Chronic musculoskeletal pain does not necessarily improve even with prolonged treatment. It adversely affects daily life and both physical and mental health. Because those suffering pain often increasingly need assistance in daily activities, people around them are also affected. The therapeutic system and treatment procedures for chronic musculoskeletal pain merit prompt review.
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            The evaluation of neuropathic components in low back pain.

            Chronic low back pain is highly prevalent in Western societies. Large epidemiological studies show that 20% to 35% of patients with back pain suffer from a neuropathic pain component. Presently, chronic lumbar radicular pain is the most common neuropathic pain syndrome. The pathophysiology of back pain is complex and nociceptive, and neuropathic pain-generating mechanisms are thought to be involved, which established the term mixed pain syndrome. Neuropathic pain may be caused by lesions of nociceptive sprouts within the degenerated disc (local neuropathic), mechanical compression of the nerve root (mechanical neuropathic root pain), or by action of inflammatory mediators (inflammatory neuropathic root pain) originating from the degenerative disc even without any mechanical compression. Its diagnosis and management remain an enigma, mainly because there is no gold standard for either. Accuracy of diagnostic tests used to identify the source of back pain and their usefulness in clinical practice, particularly for guiding treatment selection, is unclear. In connection with the specific instance of back pain (one of the single most costly disorders in many industrialized nations), neuropathic pain components are a significant cost factor.
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              • Article: not found

              Surgical treatment of moderate ischemic mitral regurgitation.

              Ischemic mitral regurgitation is associated with increased mortality and morbidity. For surgical patients with moderate regurgitation, the benefits of adding mitral-valve repair to coronary-artery bypass grafting (CABG) are uncertain.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                JPR
                jpainres
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove
                1178-7090
                23 September 2019
                2019
                : 12
                : 2785-2797
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Public Health and Epidemiology, Meiji Pharmaceutical University , Tokyo, Japan
                [2 ]Health Economics and Outcomes Research, Graduate School of Pharmaceutical Sciences, The University of Tokyo , Tokyo, Japan
                [3 ]Medical Affairs, Pfizer Japan Inc ., Tokyo, Japan
                [4 ]CRECON Medical Assessment Inc ., Tokyo, Japan
                [5 ]Clinical Research Division, Clinical Study Support, Inc ., Nagoya, Japan
                [6 ]Yamaguchi Rosai Hospital , Yamaguchi, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Nozomi Ebata Medical Affairs, Pfizer Japan Inc ., 3-22-7 Yoyogi, Shibuya-ku, Tokyo151-8589JapanTel +81 3 80 3393 0745Fax +81 3 5309 9198 Email nozomi.ebata@pfizer.com
                Article
                203712
                10.2147/JPR.S203712
                6765214
                © 2019 Akazawa et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 5, Tables: 3, References: 39, Pages: 13
                Categories
                Original Research

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