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      Type 2 diabetes mellitus and risk of colorectal adenoma: a meta-analysis of observational studies

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          Abstract

          Background

          To summarize the relationship between type 2 diabetes mellitus (T2DM) and risk of colorectal adenomas (CRA), we performed a meta-analysis of observational studies.

          Methods

          To find studies, we searched PubMed, Embase, the Cochrane Library, Web of Science and conference abstracts and related publications for American Society of Clinical Oncology and the European Society of Medical Oncology. Studies that reported relative risks (RRs) or odds ratios (ORs) with 95 % confidence intervals (CIs) for the association between T2DM and risk of CRA were included. The meta-analysis assessed the relationships between T2DM and risk of CRA. Sensitivity analyses were performed in two ways: (1) by omitting each study iteratively and (2) by keeping high-quality studies only. Publication bias was detected by Egger’s and Begg’s tests and corrected using the trim and fill method.

          Results

          This meta-analysis included 17 studies with 28,999 participants and 6798 CRA cases. We found that T2DM was a risk factor for CRA (RR: 1.52; 95 % CI: 1.29–1.80), and also for the advanced adenoma (RR: 1.41; 95 % CI: 1.06–1.87). Patients with existing T2DM (RR: 1.56; 95 % CI: 1.16–2.08) or newly diagnosed T2DM (RR: 1.51; 95 % CI: 1.16–1.97) have a risk of CRA. Similar significant results were found in retrospective studies (RR: 1.57; 95 % CI: 1.30–1.89) and population based cross-sectional studies (RR: 1.46; 95 % CI: 1.21–1.89), but not in prospective studies (RR: 1.27; 95 % CI: 0.77–2.10).

          Conclusions

          Our results suggested that T2DM plays a risk role in the risk of developing CRA. Consequently, medical workers should increase the rate of CRA screening for T2DM patients so that they can benefit from behavioural interventions that can help prevent the development of colorectal cancer. Additional, large prospective cohort studies are needed to make a more convincing case for these associations.

          Electronic supplementary material

          The online version of this article (doi:10.1186/s12885-016-2685-3) contains supplementary material, which is available to authorized users.

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          Most cited references 50

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          Risk Factors Contributing to Type 2 Diabetes and Recent Advances in the Treatment and Prevention

          Type 2 diabetes is a serious and common chronic disease resulting from a complex inheritance-environment interaction along with other risk factors such as obesity and sedentary lifestyle. Type 2 diabetes and its complications constitute a major worldwide public health problem, affecting almost all populations in both developed and developing countries with high rates of diabetes-related morbidity and mortality. The prevalence of type 2 diabetes has been increasing exponentially, and a high prevalence rate has been observed in developing countries and in populations undergoing “westernization” or modernization. Multiple risk factors of diabetes, delayed diagnosis until micro- and macro-vascular complications arise, life-threatening complications, failure of the current therapies, and financial costs for the treatment of this disease, make it necessary to develop new efficient therapy strategies and appropriate prevention measures for the control of type 2 diabetes. Herein, we summarize our current understanding about the epidemiology of type 2 diabetes, the roles of genes, lifestyle and other factors contributing to rapid increase in the incidence of type 2 diabetes. The core aims are to bring forward the new therapy strategies and cost-effective intervention trials of type 2 diabetes.
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            Insulin and colon cancer.

             E Giovannucci (1995)
            Some factors related to Westernization or industrialization increase risk of colon cancer. It is believed widely that this increase in risk is related to the direct effects of dietary fat and fiber in the colonic lumen. However, the fat and fiber hypotheses, at least as originally formulated, do not explain adequately many emerging findings from recent epidemiologic studies. An alternative hypothesis, that hyperinsulinemia promotes colon carcinogenesis, is presented here. Insulin is an important growth factor of colonic epithelial cells and is a mitogen of tumor cell growth in vitro. Epidemiologic evidence supporting the insulin/colon-cancer hypothesis is largely indirect and based on the similarity of factors which produce elevated insulin levels with those related to colon cancer risk. Specifically, obesity--particularly central obesity, physical inactivity, and possibly a low dietary polyunsaturated fat to saturated fat ratio--are major determinants of insulin resistance and hyperinsulinemia, and appear related to colon cancer risk. Moreover, a diet high in refined carbohydrates and low in water-soluble fiber, which is associated with an increased risk of colon cancer, causes rapid intestinal absorption of glucose into the blood leading to postprandial hyperinsulinemia. The combination of insulin resistance and high glycemic load produces particularly high insulin levels. Thus, hyperinsulinemia may explain why obesity, physical inactivity, and a diet low in fruits and vegetables and high in red meat and extensively processed foods, all common in the West, increase colon cancer risk.
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              Insulin therapy and colorectal cancer risk among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.

              Endogenous hyperinsulinemia in the context of type 2 diabetes mellitus is potentially associated with an increased risk of colorectal cancer. We aimed to determine whether insulin therapy might increase the risk of colorectal cancer among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients. We conducted a retrospective cohort study among all patients with a diagnosis of type 2 diabetes mellitus in the General Practice Research Database from the United Kingdom. We excluded patients with or =1 year of insulin use was 2.1 (95% CI: 1.2-3.4, P = 0.005). The positive association strengthened after adjusting for potential confounders. The multivariable odds ratio associated with each incremental year of insulin therapy was 1.21 (95% CI: 1.03-1.42, P = 0.02). Chronic insulin therapy significantly increases the risk of colorectal cancer among type 2 diabetes mellitus patients.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                +86-21-81871441 , hejia63@yeah.net
                Journal
                BMC Cancer
                BMC Cancer
                BMC Cancer
                BioMed Central (London )
                1471-2407
                17 August 2016
                17 August 2016
                2016
                : 16
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Medical Service Research Division, Navy Medical Research Institute, Shanghai, China
                [2 ]Department of Health Statistics, Second Military Medical University, No. 800 Xiangyin Road, Shanghai, 200433 China
                [3 ]Department of Colorectal Surgery, Changhai Hospital, Shanghai, China
                [4 ]College of Art & Science, University of San Francisco, San Francisco, USA
                Article
                2685
                10.1186/s12885-016-2685-3
                4989384
                27535548
                © Yu et al. 2016

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2016

                Oncology & Radiotherapy

                colorectal adenoma, type 2 diabetes mellitus, meta-analysis

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