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      Characteristics and Outcome of Chinese Patients with Both Antineutrophil Cytoplasmic Antibody and Antiglomerular Basement Membrane Antibodies

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          Abstract

          Background: Antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibody (ANCA)-associated systemic vasculitis (AASV) is a systemic autoimmune disease. A number of cases have been found to have antiglomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibody-positive serum. The purpose of the current article is to investigate the prevalence of anti-GBM antibodies in sera from a large cohort of Chinese patients with AASV and to characterize the clinical and pathological features of the ‘double positive’ patients. Methods: Sera from 652 patients with AASV were screened by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) and confirmed by Western blot analysis using purified human α(IV)NC1 as antigen. Antigen specificity of anti-GBM antibodies was determined by ELISA using recombinant human α3(IV)NC1 as solid phase ligand. Clinical and pathological data of patients with both ANCA and anti-GBM antibodies were analyzed retrospectively. Results: 61/652 (9.36%) sera from patients with AASV were serum anti-GBM antibody positive and all recognized recombinant human α3(IV)NC1. All the cases had renal involvement, 37/48 (77.1%) cases had pulmonary involvement, non-specific symptoms and other multisystem involvements were common. The renal survival was 14.6% (7/48) and patient survival was 37.5% (18/48) respectively at the end of 1 year. The following factors predicted poor prognosis: (1) serum creatinine >700 µmol/l (p = 0.034); (2) oliguria or anuria on diagnosis (p = 0.001); (3) high percentage (>85%) of glomeruli with crescents (p = 0.011); (4) high titer anti-GBM antibodies (p = 0.003), and (5) hemoptysis (p = 0.049). Conclusion: Patients with double antibodies were not rare in AASV. They had multisystem involvement but poor short-term prognosis.Anti-GBM antibodies should be detected on diagnosis of AASV, especially for old ages.

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          Most cited references 10

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          Clinical features and outcome of patients with both ANCA and anti-GBM antibodies.

          Patients have been described who have both anti-neutrophil cytoplasm antibodies (ANCA) and anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies. We have attempted to define the true prevalence of such "double positive" patients, and describe in detail their clinical features and outcome. We have reviewed all serologic assays performed between 1990 and 2000 in a single institution, and the case notes of patients having sera positive for both ANCA and anti-GBM antibodies. During this time 20,392 sera were initially tested for ANCA, and 4808 sera tested for anti-GBM antibodies. Five percent of all ANCA-positive serum samples were also positive for anti-GBM antibodies, and 32% of all anti-GBM positive samples had detectable ANCA. Of 27 patients with both antibodies, 82% had anti-myeloperoxidase specific P-ANCA. Pulmonary hemorrhage occurred in 44%. Renal biopsy showed extensive glomerular cellular crescents in most patients. Patient and renal survival rates were 52% and 26%, respectively, at one year. Sixty-eight percent of patients were dialysis-dependent at presentation, and none of these recovered renal function, despite immunosuppression with or without plasma exchange. Serologic evidence of double positivity for both ANCA and anti-GBM antibodies is common in patients with either antibody. In our study these patients have a poor prognosis when presenting with severe disease and initially behave more like anti-GBM disease than vasculitis. Recovery from severe renal failure is rare.
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            Coexistence of anti-glomerular basement membrane antibodies and myeloperoxidase-ANCAs in crescentic glomerulonephritis.

            In a substantial proportion of patients with crescentic glomerulonephritis (CGN), both anti-glomerular basement membrane (GBM) antibodies and antineutrophil cytoplasmic antibodies (ANCAs) with specificity for myeloperoxidase (MPO-ANCA) are detected. In the present study, we questioned whether histological and clinical features of patients with both ANCA and anti-GBM antibodies differ from those of patients with either ANCA or anti-GBM alone. We reviewed the Limburg renal biopsy registry (1978 to 2003; n = 1,373) for cases of CGN. The presence of linear fluorescence on renal biopsy and the presence of ANCA and/or anti-GBM antibodies were measured. Subsequently, we assessed patient characteristics and follow-up and compared histological findings among the different groups. We identified 46 MPO-ANCA-positive, 10 double-positive, and 13 anti-GBM-positive patients. Mean ages were 63, 64, and 52 years (P = 0.04), and serum creatinine levels were 5.0, 10.3, and 9.6 mg/dL (445, 910, and 850 micromol/L), respectively (P = 0.01). Granulomatous periglomerular inflammation was found in either MPO-ANCA- or double-positive patients, but not in anti-GBM-positive patients with CGN without MPO-ANCAs. Patient survival among the 3 groups was different, although not statistically significant (log rank P = 0.17, with 75%, 79%, and 100% alive at 1 year, respectively). Renal survival analysis showed significant differences among the 3 groups (P = 0.04, with 65%, 10%, and 15% off dialysis therapy at 1 year, respectively). In patients with both anti-GBM antibodies and MPO-ANCAs, histological findings differ from those of patients with anti-GBM antibodies only. However, renal survival in these patients is not better than that in anti-GBM-positive patients and is worse compared with patients with MPO-ANCAs only.
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              Autoantibodies to GBM and neutrophil cytoplasm in rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis.

              The incidence of autoantibodies to glomerular basement membrane (AGBMA) and neutrophil cytoplasmic antigens (ANCA) in the initial sera of 889 consecutive patients with a suspected diagnosis of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis, was determined by prospective study. Forty-seven (5%) were positive for AGBMA alone, 246 (28%) were positive for ANCA alone, 576 (65%) had neither autoantibodies while 20 (2%) had both. Clinical and pathological data collected from patients with both autoantibodies suggested the coexistence of anti-glomerular basement membrane disease and systemic vasculitis. Together, assays for AGBMA and ANCA are important in the diagnosis and management of rapidly progressive glomerulonephritis and may help its further classification.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2110
                2007
                October 2007
                05 September 2007
                : 107
                : 2
                : c56-c62
                Affiliations
                Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Peking University First Hospital; Institute of Nephrology, Peking University, and Key Laboratory of Renal Disease, Ministry of Health of China, Beijing, PR China
                Article
                107803 Nephron Clin Pract 2007;107:c56–c62
                10.1159/000107803
                17804912
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 1, References: 21, Pages: 1
                Categories
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