Background/Aims: Single cases of lithium carbonate dosing in hemodialysis patients have been published. We investigate the dose-serum level relationship after single and multiple lithium acetate dosing in a hemodialysis patient and review the literature. Methods: Lithium acetate was administered orally over a period of 11 months in a patient with major depressive episodes after being placed on hemodialysis three times a week. The serum trough levels of lithium before and after hemodialysis were analyzed. The data were compared with those reported in the literature, and potential drug interactions and the importance of the residual renal function are discussed. Results: No adverse events due to the lithium therapy were documented. Steady state levels of between 0.6 and 0.8 mmol/l of lithium acetate were achieved 17 days after initiating the therapy, using 24 mmol/l of lithium three times a week, in a patient with a residual diuresis of about 400 ml/day. In contrast, data reported in the literature implicate that only 9.6–14.4 mmol/l of lithium (450–600 mg of lithium carbonate) is sufficient to achieve adequate serum levels. Conclusions: The residual renal function can be important for lithium clearance. The creatinine clearance does not reflect this point.