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      A Prospective, Randomized, Double-Blind Crossover Study on the Use of 5% Citrate Lock versus 10% Citrate Lock in Permanent Hemodialysis Catheters

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          Abstract

          Central venous catheters are used as permanent vascular access for chronic hemodialysis when construction of an arteriovenous fistula is not possible or contraindicated. We prospectively evaluated the efficacy and safety of a 5% citrate versus 10% citrate catheter lock for permanent single-lumen dialysis catheters in a double-blind, crossover study of 28 patients during 1,876 dialysis sessions. There was a slightly higher number of dialysis sessions with clot formation in the 5% citrate group; entirely attributable to the formation of small clots. There was no statistically significant difference in the formation of large clots, complete obstruction of the catheter or the need for urokinase between the 2 study groups. In view of the ongoing debate on the safety of high-concentration citrate catheter locks, we conclude that a 5% citrate lock is equally efficient in preventing catheter dysfunction compared with a 10% citrate lock and is therefore the preferred citrate catheter-locking solution.

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          Most cited references 9

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          Prevention of dialysis catheter-related sepsis with a citrate-taurolidine-containing lock solution.

          The use of haemodialysis catheters is complicated by catheter-related sepsis. Intraluminal colonization of the catheter with bacteria is important in the pathogenesis of catheter-related sepsis. The use of a catheter lock solution containing the antimicrobial taurolidine might prevent bacterial colonization, thereby reducing the incidence of catheter-related sepsis. In a randomized prospective trial, patients receiving a dialysis catheter were included and catheters were locked with either heparin or a citrate-taurolidine-containing solution. Blood cultures drawn from the catheter lumen were routinely taken every 2 weeks and at time of removal of the catheter to detect bacterial colonization. Catheter-related sepsis and exit-site infections were registered for both groups. A total of 76 catheters were inserted in 58 patients. The incidence of catheter colonization progressed slowly over time with no differences between dialysis catheters filled with heparin or citrate-taurolidine-containing solution. The number of exit-site infections was also similar between both groups. In the heparin group, four cases of catheter-related sepsis occurred as opposed to no sepsis episodes in the patients with catheters locked with the citrate-taurolidine-containing solution (P<0.5). No side effects with the use of citrate-taurolidine catheter lock solution were noted. This study shows that catheter filling with a solution containing the antimicrobial taurolidine may significantly reduce the incidence of catheter-related sepsis. Taurolidine appears to be effective and safe and does not carry the risk for side effects that have been reported for other antimicrobial lock solutions containing gentamicin or high concentrations of citrate.
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            Prevention of tunneled hemodialysis catheter-related infections using catheter-restricted filling with gentamicin and citrate: a randomized controlled study.

            Tunneled catheters are widely used for the provision of hemodialysis. Long-term catheter survival is limited by tunneled catheter-related infections (CRI). This study assesses the efficacy of catheter-restricted filling with gentamicin and citrate in preventing CRI in hemodialysis patients. A double-blind randomized study was conducted to compare heparin (5000 U/ml) with gentamicin/citrate (40 mg/ml and 3.13% citrate; ratio 2:1) as catheter-lock solutions. A total of 112 tunneled catheters in 83 patients were enrolled at the time of catheter insertion for commencement or maintenance of hemodialysis. The primary end point was CRI. Catheter malfunction, defined as blood flow rate of <200 ml/min for three consecutive dialyses and/or the use of urokinase, was also assessed as a secondary end point. Infection rates per 100 catheter-days were 0.03 in the gentamicin group versus 0.42 in the heparin group (P = 0.003). Kaplan-Meier survival analyses showed mean infection-free catheter survival of 282 d (95% CI, 272 to 293 d) in the gentamicin group versus 181 d (95% CI, 124 to 237 d) in the heparin group (log rank, 9.58; P = 0.002). Cox regression analyses showed a relative risk for infection-free catheter survival of 0.10 (95% CI, 0.01 to 0.92) in the gentamicin group when adjusted for gender, race, diabetes mellitus, catheter malfunction, and hemoglobin (P = 0.042). The incidence of catheter malfunction was not significantly different between groups. Predialysis gentamicin levels were significantly higher in patients randomized to gentamicin (gentamicin/citrate: median 2.8 mg/L [range, 0.6 to 3.5 mg/L], n = 5; heparin: median <0.2 mg/L [range <0.2 to 0.2 mg/L], n = 5; P = 0.008). Tunneled hemodialysis catheter-restricted filling with gentamicin and citrate is a highly effective strategy for prevention of CRI. Although citrate as a catheter-lock solution provides adequate anticoagulation for the interdialytic period, gentamicin levels suggest significant risk for chronic aminoglycoside exposure and associated ototoxicity. Before this technique is adopted, these preliminary observations warrant replication in future studies that will examine the efficacy and safety of lower doses of gentamicin or alternative agents with a reduced potential for toxicity.
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              Superior antimicrobial activity of trisodium citrate over heparin for catheter locking.

              Haemodialysis catheters used for vascular access are frequently complicated by infection and catheter-related thrombosis. Improvement of interdialytic locking solutions could reduce these problems. Trisodium citrate (TSC) has been advocated in recent years because it might have antimicrobial qualities. Antimicrobial efficacy of four concentrations of TSC (2.2, 7.5, 15 and 30%) was compared with three equi-osmolal sodium chloride (NaCl) concentrations, unfractionated heparin 5000 IU/ml and a solution of gentamicin 1 mg/ml in TSC 7.5%. We analysed antimicrobial properties by two classical in vitro susceptibility tests. All tests were performed in triplicate by incubation of test fluids with Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Increasing TSC concentrations effectively killed the staphylococcal strains in both assays. For E.coli and P.aeruginosa complete killing was achieved only with TSC 30%. TSC 30% was also the only solution that significantly inhibited growth of C.albicans. Heparin manifested no antimicrobial effect of any significance. Adding gentamicin to TSC provided superior bacterial growth inhibition but had no effect on yeast growth. TSC solutions manifested superior antimicrobial activity compared with iso-osmolal NaCl solutions in both assays. This in vitro study demonstrates superior antimicrobial activity of TSC, especially in higher concentrations, in contrast to heparin. The mechanism seems to differ from hyperosmolality. Ca(2+) and Mg(2+) chelating effects are probably more important. Adding gentamicin provided the most potent antimicrobial solution. However, for reasons concerning development of bacterial resistance and sensitization of the patient, continuous exposition to aminoglycosides seems not advisable.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                BPU
                Blood Purif
                10.1159/issn.0253-5068
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                0253-5068
                1421-9735
                2005
                March 2005
                28 February 2005
                : 23
                : 2
                : 101-105
                Affiliations
                Department of Nephrology and Renal Transplantation University Hospitals Leuven, University of Leuven, Leuven, Belgium
                Article
                83203 Blood Purif 2005;23:101–105
                10.1159/000083203
                15640601
                © 2005 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 2, References: 15, Pages: 5
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/83203
                Categories
                Original Paper

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