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      Enalapril Reduces the Expression of Nuclear Factor-κB and c-Jun N-Terminal Kinase in the Renal Cortices of Five-Sixths-Nephrectomized Rats

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          Abstract

          Background/Aim: Five-sixths-nephrectomized rats present renal functional and histological abnormalities which are attenuated by enalapril treatment. c-Jun N-terminal kinase (JNK), a mitogen-activated protein kinase, and nuclear factor-ĸB (NF-ĸB) pathways can be activated by angiotensin II which has been implicated in renal injury. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of enalapril on the expression of NF-ĸB and JNK in renal cortices of five-sixths-nephrectomized rats. Methods: Of the 65 rats studied, 25 underwent five-sixths nephrectomy and received no treatment, 15 underwent five-sixths nephrectomy and received enalapril, 15 were sham operated and received no treatment, and 10 were sham operated and received enalapril. On postoperative days 15 and 90, systolic blood pressure, glomerular filtration rate, and albumin excretion were determined. The rats were then killed and the kidneys removed for histology and immunohistochemistry. Results: In five-sixths-nephrectomized rats, we observed functional and structural renal alterations, as well as greater NF-ĸB/JNK expression and higher macrophage counts. Enalapril treatment reduced all of these changes. Conclusion: The protective effect of enalapril on the kidney of five-sixths-nephrec tomized rats might be related to the inhibition of NF-ĸB and JNK activation.

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          Most cited references 11

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          Transcription factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) and renal disease.

           C Guijarro,  J. Egido (2001)
          Transcription factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) and renal disease. Nuclear factor-kappa B (NF-kappa B) comprises a family of dimeric transcription factors that regulate the expression of numerous genes involved in inflammation and cell proliferation. Although NF-kappa B was initially identified in lymphocytes, it has been found to be a transcription factor present in virtually all cell types. In resting cells, NF-kappa B dimers remain in the cytoplasm in an inactive form bound to the inhibitory subunit I kappa B. Upon stimulation, I kappa B is phosphorylated, ubiquitinylated, and ultimately degraded by proteolytic cleavage by the proteasome system. As a result, NF-kappa B dimers are translocated into the nucleus and activate the transcription of target genes. Increasing data suggest a pivotal role for NF-kappa B in a variety of pathophysiological conditions in which either inflammation or cell number control are critical events. NF-kappa B has been found to be activated in experimental renal disease. Importantly, both in vivo and in vitro, NF-kappa B activation can be modulated by pharmacological maneuvers. Indeed, it is now widely acknowledged that the anti-inflammatory action of steroids is basically obtained through the inhibition of the transactivation of NF-kappa B-dependent genes. In addition, some of the beneficial effects of angiotensin-converting enzyme inhibitors and statins may, at least in part, be mediated by an inhibition of NF-kappa B activation. A better understanding of the mechanisms involved in NF-kappa B regulation and its modulation may provide new tools to improve the treatment of renal diseases with a better sound pathophysiological approach.
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            Transcriptional regulation by extracellular signals: mechanisms and specificity.

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              Early events leading to renal injury in obese Zucker (fatty) rats with type II diabetes.

              Early events leading to renal injury in obese Zucker (fatty) rats with type II diabetes. More than half of the new patients admitted to dialysis therapy in some centers are diagnosed with type IIb diabetes, that is, diabetes associated with obesity. This study searched for a common final pathway of renal damage in this progressive renal disease. The evolution of biochemical and morphological renal changes was examined in 6- to 60-week-old Zucker rats (fa/fa-rats), a model of obesity associated with type II diabetes. fa/fa-rats exhibited pronounced hyperinsulinemia and hyperlipidemia at 6 weeks and became diabetic after 14 weeks of age. Significant focal segmental glomerulosclerosis was first noted in 18-week-old fa/fa-rats and tubulointerstitial damage and proteinuria in 40-week-old fa/fa-rats. A comparison of kidneys of six-week-old fa/fa-and lean control (Fa/?) rats by immunohistology revealed a 1.8-fold increase in glomerular monocyte/macrophage counts in fa/fa-rats and a significant increase in de novo desmin expression in podocytes. Electron microscopy demonstrated an increase in the number of podocyte mitochondria and intracytoplasmic protein and fat droplets. Podocyte desmin scores markedly increased until week 18 in fa/fa-rats, whereas glomerular monocyte/macrophage counts peaked at 3.2-fold at week 14. Podocyte desmin expression, but not glomerular macrophage infiltration, correlated with damage in adjacent tubular cells, as evidenced by their de novo expression of vimentin. Progressive glomerular hypertrophy was detected in fa/fa-rats after 10 weeks. GBM width was significantly increased in 14-week-old fa/fa-rats as compared with lean controls. Mesangial cell activation (de novo expression of alpha-smooth muscle actin) and proliferation was low to absent throughout the observation period in fa/fa-rats. Renal cell death counts (TUNEL) remained unchanged in 6- to 40-week-old fa/fa-rats. Tubulointerstitial myofibroblast formation and matrix accumulation occurred late during the study duration in fa/fa-rats. These data suggest that early progressive podocyte damage and macrophage infiltration is associated with hyperlipidemia and type IIb diabetes mellitus, and antedates both the development of glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial damage.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                AJN
                Am J Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.0250-8095
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                0250-8095
                1421-9670
                2006
                July 2006
                19 July 2006
                : 26
                : 3
                : 281-286
                Affiliations
                Departments of aInternal Medicine, bPathology and cPhysiology, Faculty of Medicine of Ribeirão Prêto, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Prêto, Brazil
                Article
                93960 Am J Nephrol 2006;26:281–286
                10.1159/000093960
                16772709
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 4, References: 17, Pages: 6
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/93960
                Categories
                Original Report: Laboratory Investigation

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