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      Is investment in Climate-Smart-agricultural practices the option for the future? Cost and benefit analysis evidence from Ghana

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          Abstract

          A majority of smallholder farmers in sub-Saharan Africa (SSA) countries depend to a large extent on agriculture for food security and income. Efforts aimed at improving farm-related profitability are therefore important to improving livelihoods among smallholder farmers. In Ghana, for example, smallholder farmers that depend on agriculture face serious risks especially those related to climate change and variability and soil degradation. Notwithstanding these dangers, evidence of the published literature on how best to tackle these challenges is limited. Over the recent decades, however, there has been advancement by programs channelling resources into Climate-Smart Agricultural (CSA) practices to improving smallholder livelihoods and food security. The interest in advancing investment in CSA practices is a key pathway that has the potential to significantly reduce the negative effect of climate change and variability risks on smallholder farmers livelihoods. Investing in CSA practices is also a key pathway to improving farm yield per unit area. Consequently, smallholder farmers are adopting and implementing CSA practices. Despite that, a gap still exists on the profitability of undertaking such an investment, as this is key in determining the sustainability of CSA practices. On this basis, the present study undertook a detailed cost-benefit analysis (CBA) of seven CSA practices identified with smallholder farmers in the coastal savannah agro-ecological zone of Ghana. A total of 48 smallholder farmers that had adopted these practices were studied. Three CBA indicators namely the net present value (NPV), internal rate of return (IRR) and payback period (PP) were assessed for each of the seven CSA practices. The results showed that out of the seven CSA practices examined, six of them were profitably suitable for adoption and scaling up from the perspective of smallholder farmers as well as the public perspective. The finding from this study, therefore, fill the current information gap in the literature on the costs and benefits of adopting CSA practices on household livelihoods in Ghana. Such a finding is critical to the promotion and scaling up the adoption of CSA practices by smallholder farmers and serve as a basis of formulating appropriate guidelines and policies for supporting CSA practices.

          Abstract

          Climate-Smart, Practice, Livelihoods, Smallholders, Yield, Externalities, Decision.

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          Most cited references79

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          Soil carbon sequestration to mitigate climate change

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              Carbon sequestration.

              Rattan Lal (2007)
              Developing technologies to reduce the rate of increase of atmospheric concentration of carbon dioxide (CO2) from annual emissions of 8.6PgCyr-1 from energy, process industry, land-use conversion and soil cultivation is an important issue of the twenty-first century. Of the three options of reducing the global energy use, developing low or no-carbon fuel and sequestering emissions, this manuscript describes processes for carbon (CO2) sequestration and discusses abiotic and biotic technologies. Carbon sequestration implies transfer of atmospheric CO2 into other long-lived global pools including oceanic, pedologic, biotic and geological strata to reduce the net rate of increase in atmospheric CO2. Engineering techniques of CO2 injection in deep ocean, geological strata, old coal mines and oil wells, and saline aquifers along with mineral carbonation of CO2 constitute abiotic techniques. These techniques have a large potential of thousands of Pg, are expensive, have leakage risks and may be available for routine use by 2025 and beyond. In comparison, biotic techniques are natural and cost-effective processes, have numerous ancillary benefits, are immediately applicable but have finite sink capacity. Biotic and abiotic C sequestration options have specific nitches, are complementary, and have potential to mitigate the climate change risks.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Heliyon
                Heliyon
                Heliyon
                Elsevier
                2405-8440
                08 April 2021
                April 2021
                08 April 2021
                : 7
                : 4
                : e06653
                Affiliations
                [a ]International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), P. O. Box 6247, Kampala, Uganda
                [b ]International Centre for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), P. O. Box 823-00621, Nairobi, Kenya
                [c ]International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), P. O. Box 6713, Cali, Colombia
                Author notes
                []Corresponding author. stanley.karanja@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                S2405-8440(21)00756-8 e06653
                10.1016/j.heliyon.2021.e06653
                8045009
                6f6dad67-e0e6-4ce3-84ce-2213eaad2cd1
                © 2021 The Authors

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                History
                : 6 June 2019
                : 19 November 2020
                : 29 March 2021
                Categories
                Research Article

                climate-smart,practice,livelihoods,smallholders,yield,externalities,decision

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