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      Insufficient Arteriovenous Fistulae in Hemodialysis Patients

      a , b

      Blood Purification

      S. Karger AG

      Arteriovenous fistulae, Microscopy, Hemodialysis

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          Background: For an accurate assessment of structural changes in arteriovenous fistulae (AVF) a microscopic analysis is mandatory. Methods: 25 insufficient AVF were analyzed with the light microscope using standard histological and immunohistochemical techniques. Results: In 7 patients (28%) atherosclerotic lesions as causes of AVF insufficiency were found. The other 18 patients (72%) had an inhomogeneous spectrum of nonatherosclerotic lesions, for instance intimal hyperplasia. Conclusions: Histopathologic analysis of insufficient AVF helps clarify the underlying changes in the structure of the vessel wall.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Oral anticoagulant treatment: friend or foe in cardiovascular disease?

          Calcification is a common complication in cardiovascular disease and may affect both arteries and heart valves. Matrix gamma-carboxyglutamic acid (Gla) protein (MGP) is a potent inhibitor of vascular calcification, the activity of which is regulated by vitamin K. In animal models, vitamin K antagonists (oral anticoagulants [OACs]) were shown to induce arterial calcification. To investigate whether long-term OAC treatment may induce calcification in humans also, we have measured the grade of aortic valve calcification in patients with and without preoperative OAC treatment. OAC-treated subjects were matched with nontreated ones for age, sex, and disease. Calcifications in patients receiving preoperative OAC treatment were significantly (2-fold) larger than in nontreated patients. These observations suggest that OACs, which are widely used for antithrombotic therapy, may induce cardiovascular calcifications as an adverse side effect.
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            Oxidative stress and increased expression of growth factors in lesions of failed hemodialysis access.

            The pathological role of oxidative stress in patients treated by hemodialysis has gained increasing recognition in recent years. Because complications related to vascular access are a major source of morbidity, immunohistochemical evidence of oxidative stress and activation of growth factors were examined in native arteriovenous (AV) fistulae (n = 11) and expanded polytetrafluoroethylene (ePTFE) grafts (n = 15) recovered from hemodialysis patients at the time of surgical revision or resection. To show the presence of oxidative stress in tissues, three markers were chosen: N(epsilon)(carboxymethyl)lysine, a structurally identified advanced glycation end product; 4-hydroxy-2,3-nonenol, a lipid peroxidation product; and redox-active transition metals bound to proteins, a source of Fenton chemistry-generated free radicals. Markers of cell growth and proliferation were endothelin-1 (ET-1), a potent mitogenic peptide implicated in the formation of intimal hyperplasia; transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta), a stimulus to vascular cell growth and matrix production; and platelet-derived growth factor (PDGF), a mediator of intimal hyperplasia. All specimens studied showed significant intimal hyperplasia. In general, the neointima close to the vascular lumen of the AV fistula and the pseudointima close to the lumen of the ePTFE graft were positive for oxidative stress markers. At sites of injury, especially in the presence of histological evidence of inflammation and healing, expression of oxidative markers was particularly intense. Prominent staining of PDGF was shown at sites of anastomotic hyperplasia and in neovasculature. TGF-beta was associated with proliferation or repair in both AV fistulae and ePTFE grafts. ET-1 staining was most intense in the neointima and pseudointima. This study showed histochemical colocalization of markers of oxidative stress with growth factors known to contribute to intimal hyperplasia.
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              Flow patterns in the radiocephalic arteriovenous fistula: an in vitro study.

              A significant number of late failures of arteriovenous fistulae for haemodialysis access are related to the progression of intimal hyperplasia. Although the aetiology of this process is still unknown, the geometry of the fistula and the local haemodynamics are thought to be contributory factors. An in-vitro study was carried out to investigate the local haemodynamics in a model of a Cimino-Brescia arteriovenous (AV) fistula with a 30 degrees anastomotic angle and vein-to-artery diameter ratio of 1.6. Flow patterns were obtained by planar illumination of micro-particles suspended in the fluid. Steady and pulsatile flow studies were performed over a range of flow conditions corresponding to those recorded in patients. Quantitative measurements of wall shear stress and turbulence were made using laser Doppler anemometry. The flow structures in pulsatile flow were similar to those seen in steady flow with no significant qualitative changes over the cardiac cycle. This was probably the result of the low pulsatility index of the flow waveform in AV fistulae. Turbulence was the dominant feature in the vein, with relative turbulence intensity > 0.5 within 10 mm of the suture line decreasing to a relatively constant value of about 0.10-0.15 between 40 and 70 mm from the suture line. Peak and mean Reynolds shear stress of 15 and 20 N/m2, respectively, were recorded at the suture line. On the floor of the artery, peak values of temporal mean and oscillating wall shear stress of 9.22 and 29.8 N/m2, respectively. In the vein, both mean and oscillating wall shear stress decreased with distance from the anastomosis.

                Author and article information

                Blood Purif
                Blood Purification
                S. Karger AG
                March 2007
                05 December 2006
                : 25
                : 2
                : 151-154
                aUnilabs Mittelland, Institut für Pathologie, Bern, Switzerland; bFachbereich Gefässchirurgie, Interdisziplinäres Gefässzentrum an der Stadtklinik, Baden-Baden, Germany
                97751 Blood Purif 2007;25:151–154
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 2, References: 13, Pages: 4
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                Short Communication

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Hemodialysis, Arteriovenous fistulae, Microscopy


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