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      Toward Unifying Global Hotspots of Wild and Domesticated Biodiversity

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          Abstract

          Global biodiversity hotspots are areas containing high levels of species richness, endemism and threat. Similarly, regions of agriculturally relevant diversity have been identified where many domesticated plants and animals originated, and co-occurred with their wild ancestors and relatives. The agro-biodiversity in these regions has, likewise, often been considered threatened. Biodiversity and agro-biodiversity hotspots partly overlap, but their geographic intricacies have rarely been investigated together. Here we review the history of these two concepts and explore their geographic relationship by analysing global distribution and human use data for all plants, and for major crops and associated wild relatives. We highlight a geographic continuum between agro-biodiversity hotspots that contain high richness in species that are intensively used and well known by humanity (i.e., major crops and most viewed species on Wikipedia) and biodiversity hotspots encompassing species that are less heavily used and documented (i.e., crop wild relatives and species lacking information on Wikipedia). Our contribution highlights the key considerations needed for further developing a unifying concept of agro-biodiversity hotspots that encompasses multiple facets of diversity (including genetic and phylogenetic) and the linkage with overall biodiversity. This integration will ultimately enhance our understanding of the geography of human-plant interactions and help guide the preservation of nature and its contributions to people.

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          Biodiversity hotspots for conservation priorities.

          Conservationists are far from able to assist all species under threat, if only for lack of funding. This places a premium on priorities: how can we support the most species at the least cost? One way is to identify 'biodiversity hotspots' where exceptional concentrations of endemic species are undergoing exceptional loss of habitat. As many as 44% of all species of vascular plants and 35% of all species in four vertebrate groups are confined to 25 hotspots comprising only 1.4% of the land surface of the Earth. This opens the way for a 'silver bullet' strategy on the part of conservation planners, focusing on these hotspots in proportion to their share of the world's species at risk.
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            Farming the planet: 2. Geographic distribution of crop areas, yields, physiological types, and net primary production in the year 2000

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              Food consumption trends and drivers

               John Kearney (2010)
              A picture of food consumption (availability) trends and projections to 2050, both globally and for different regions of the world, along with the drivers largely responsible for these observed consumption trends are the subject of this review. Throughout the world, major shifts in dietary patterns are occurring, even in the consumption of basic staples towards more diversified diets. Accompanying these changes in food consumption at a global and regional level have been considerable health consequences. Populations in those countries undergoing rapid transition are experiencing nutritional transition. The diverse nature of this transition may be the result of differences in socio-demographic factors and other consumer characteristics. Among other factors including urbanization and food industry marketing, the policies of trade liberalization over the past two decades have implications for health by virtue of being a factor in facilitating the ‘nutrition transition’ that is associated with rising rates of obesity and chronic diseases such as cardiovascular disease and cancer. Future food policies must consider both agricultural and health sectors, thereby enabling the development of coherent and sustainable policies that will ultimately benefit agriculture, human health and the environment.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Plants (Basel)
                Plants (Basel)
                plants
                Plants
                MDPI
                2223-7747
                31 August 2020
                September 2020
                : 9
                : 9
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond TW93AQ, UK; j.borrell@ 123456kew.org (J.S.B.); i.ondo@ 123456kew.org (I.O.); r.douglas@ 123456kew.org (R.D.); j.viruel@ 123456kew.org (J.V.); r.govaerts@ 123456kew.org (R.G.); f.forest@ 123456kew.org (F.F.); a.antonelli@ 123456kew.org (A.A.)
                [2 ]Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Wakehurst Place TW93AE, UK; c.phillips@ 123456kew.org
                [3 ]International Center for Tropical Agriculture (CIAT), Cali 6713, Colombia; c.khoury@ 123456cgiar.org
                [4 ]Department of Biology, Saint Louis University, St. Louis, MO 63103, USA
                [5 ]Department of Tropical Plant and Soil Science, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, HI 96822, USA; mbkantar@ 123456hawaii.edu (M.B.K.); nfumia@ 123456hawaii.edu (N.F.)
                [6 ]Department of Botany, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T1Z4, Canada; marybel.soto@ 123456gmail.com
                [7 ]UBC Botanical Garden and Centre for Plant Research, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC V6T1Z4, Canada
                [8 ]Gothenburg Global Biodiversity Centre, Department of Biological and Environmental Sciences, University of Gothenburg, 40530 Göteborg, Sweden
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence: s.pironon@ 123456kew.org
                Article
                plants-09-01128
                10.3390/plants9091128
                7569820
                32878166
                © 2020 by the authors.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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