Background/Aims: In the rat Adriamycin model of chronic renal failure, the development of glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial lesions is accompanied by decreased activities and mRNA levels of the antioxidant enzymes. In this study, we investigated the effect of oral vitamin E supplementation on antioxidant enzyme activities in both the cortex and isolated glomeruli from Adriamycin-treated rats. Methods: Glomerulosclerosis, tubulointerstitial lesions and ferric iron deposits were evaluated by histochemical staining methods, and antioxidant enzyme activities were measured by spectrophotometry. Results: Vitamin E supplementation of the normal diet attenuates Adriamycin-induced glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial lesions, but not proteinuria and serum total cholesterol, low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, triglycerides and total protein concentrations. In the cortex, vitamin E completely prevented a decrease in enzyme activity for Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase and catalase, and partly for Mn superoxide dismutase and glutathione peroxidase. In the glomeruli, vitamin E completely prevented a decrease in activity for Cu/Zn superoxide dismutase, catalase and glutathione peroxidase, and partly for Mn superoxide dismutase. Conclusion: Dietary supplementation of vitamin E protects the activities of antioxidant enzymes in the kidney cortex and glomeruli, and attenuates the evolution towards terminal renal failure in rats treated with Adriamycin.