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      Molecular Complexes Formed with Polycystins

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          Abstract

          Polycystins are a family of novel transmembrane proteins with at least six members already identified in humans. Defects in polycystins-1 and -2 are responsible for nearly all cases of autosomal-dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD), a major cause of end-stage renal failure. With the progress made in elucidating the genetic basis of ADPKD, the challenges are to understand the functions of polycystins and to delineate the biochemical and cellular mechanisms of cyst development and progression. In this review, we summarize the recent advances in our knowledge of the functions of polycystins with emphasis on the molecular composition of polycystin protein complexes in the kidney.

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          Most cited references 25

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          Co-assembly of polycystin-1 and -2 produces unique cation-permeable currents.

           K Hanaoka,  F Qian,  A Boletta (2015)
          The human kidney is composed of roughly 1.2-million renal tubules that must maintain their tubular structure to function properly. In autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease (ADPKD) cysts develop from renal tubules and enlarge independently, in a process that ultimately causes renal failure in 50% of affected individuals. Mutations in either PKD1 or PKD2 are associated with ADPKD but the function of these genes is unknown. PKD1 is thought to encode a membrane protein, polycystin-1, involved in cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions, whereas the PKD2 gene product, polycystin-2, is thought to be a channel protein. Here we show that polycystin-1 and -2 interact to produce new calcium-permeable non-selective cation currents. Neither polycystin-1 nor -2 alone is capable of producing currents. Moreover, disease-associated mutant forms of either polycystin protein that are incapable of heterodimerization do not result in new channel activity. We also show that polycystin-2 is localized in the cell in the absence of polycystin-1, but is translocated to the plasma membrane in its presence. Thus, polycystin-1 and -2 co-assemble at the plasma membrane to produce a new channel and to regulate renal tubular morphology and function.
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            Autosomal dominant polycystic kidney disease.

             Aaron Gabow (1993)
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              Homo- and heterodimeric interactions between the gene products of PKD1 and PKD2.

              PKD1 and PKD2 are two recently identified genes that are responsible for the vast majority of autosomal polycystic kidney disease, a common inherited disease that causes progressive renal failure. PKD1 encodes polycystin, a large glycoprotein that contains several extracellular motifs indicative of a role in cell-cell or cell-matrix interactions, and the PKD2 encodes a protein with homology to a voltage-activated calcium channel and to PKD1. It is currently unknown how mutations of either protein functionally cause autosomal polycystic kidney disease. We show that PKD1 and PKD2 interact through their C-terminal cytoplasmic tails. This interaction resulted in an up-regulation of PKD1 but not PKD2. Furthermore, the cytoplasmic tail of PKD2 but not PKD1 formed homodimers through a coiled-coil domain distinct from the region required for interaction with PKD1. These interactions suggest that PKD1 and PKD2 may function through a common signaling pathway that is necessary for normal tubulogenesis and that PKD1 may require the presence of PKD2 for stable expression.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEE
                Nephron Exp Nephrol
                10.1159/issn.1660-2129
                Cardiorenal Medicine
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2129
                2003
                January 2003
                17 November 2004
                : 93
                : 1
                : e3-e8
                Affiliations
                Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women’s Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Mass., USA
                Article
                66648 Nephron Exp Nephrol 2003;93:e3–e8
                10.1159/000066648
                12411743
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 1, References: 53, Pages: 1
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                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/66648
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