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      Comparison of students' foodservice satisfaction between Korea and US

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          Abstract

          This study analyzes important factors of foodservice in school through comparison of students' satisfaction of using foodservice in Korea and US in order to meet students' expectations. The survey was composed of 4 categories including menu, service, hygiene, and facility and it was carried out in both countries to evaluate satisfaction. First, comparison of satisfaction between two countries was made using t-test. Secondly, multiple regression was performed to identify factors affecting satisfaction. As a result Korean students were more satisfied than American students in all aspects. However, regardless of nationality, the top three factors affecting the students' satisfaction were the same. The predictors were food taste (Korean 0.375 and American 0.350), menu variety (Korean 0.305 and American 0.278), and service line (Korean 0.226 and American 0.192). Despite the similarity of the predicators, it can be concluded that the difference in satisfaction level between the two nationscan be explained by the approaches to create comfortable and acceptable changes in schools' foodservice. Korea has been increasing the foodservice quality based on their objectives to provide students comfortable and positive environment when eating nutritious meals. However, US have made their main objectives on making changes to decrease youth obesity. Foodservice improvements according to continuous evaluations and surveys are necessary in order to increase students' satisfaction.

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          School food environments and practices affect dietary behaviors of US public school children.

          Changes to school food environments and practices that lead to improved dietary behavior are a powerful strategy to reverse the childhood obesity epidemic. To estimate the effects of school food environments and practices, characterized by access to competitive foods and beverages, school lunches, and nutrition promotion, on children's consumption of sugar-sweetened beverages, low-nutrient energy-dense foods, and fruits/vegetables at school. Cross-sectional study using data from the third School Nutrition Dietary Assessment Study, a nationally representative sample of public school districts, schools, and children in school year 2004-2005. Data from school principals and foodservice directors, school menu analysis, and on-site observations were used to characterize school food environments and practices. Dietary intake was assessed using 24-hour recalls. The sample consists of 287 schools and 2,314 children in grades one through 12. Ordinary least squares regression was used to identify the association between school food environments and practices (within elementary, middle, and high schools) and dietary outcomes, controlling for other school and child/family characteristics. Sugar-sweetened beverages obtained at school contributed a daily mean of 29 kcal in middle school children and 46 kcal in high school children across all school children. Attending a school without stores or snack bars was estimated to reduce sugar-sweetened beverage consumption by 22 kcal per school day in middle school children (P<0.01) and by 28 kcal in high school children (P<0.01). The lack of a pouring rights contract in a school reduced sugar-sweetened beverage consumption by 16 kcal (P<0.05), and no à la carte offerings in a school reduced consumption by 52 kcal (P<0.001) in middle school children. The most effective practices for reducing energy from low-energy, energy-dense foods were characteristics of the school meal program; not offering french fries reduced low-nutrient, energy-dense foods consumption by 43 kcal in elementary school children (P<0.01) and sugar-sweetened beverage consumption by 41 kcal in high school children (P<0.001). To improve children's diet and reduce obesity continued changes to school food environments and practices are essential. Removing sugar-sweetened beverages from school food stores and snack bars, improving à la carte choices, and reducing the frequency of offering french fries merit testing as strategies to reduce energy from low-nutrient, energy-dense foods at school.
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            School food environments and policies in US public schools.

            The purpose of this study was to describe school food environments and policies in US public schools and how they vary according to school characteristics. We analyzed cross-sectional data from the third School Nutrition and Dietary Assessment study by using a nationally representative sample of 395 US public schools in 129 school districts in 38 states. These 2005 data included school reports of foods and beverages offered in the National School Lunch Program and on-site observations, in a subsample of schools, of competitive foods and beverages (those sold in vending machines and a la carte and that are not part of the National School Lunch Program). Seventeen factors were used to characterize school lunches, competitive foods, and other food-related policies and practices. These factors were used to compute the food environment summary score (0 [least healthy] to 17 [most healthy]) of each school. There were vending machines in 17%, 82%, and 97% of elementary, middle, and high schools, respectively, and a la carte items were sold in 71%, 92%, and 93% of schools, respectively. Among secondary schools with vending and a la carte sales, these sources were free of low-nutrient energy-dense foods or beverages in 15% and 21% of middle and high schools, respectively. The food environment summary score was significantly higher (healthier) in the lower grade levels. The summary score was not associated with the percentage of students that was certified for free or reduced-price lunches or the percentage of students that was a racial/ethnic minority. As children move to higher grade levels, their school food environments become less healthy. The great majority of US secondary schools sell items a la carte in the cafeteria and through vending machines, and these 2 sources often contain low-nutrient, energy-dense foods and beverages, commonly referred to as junk food.
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              A randomized school trial of environmental strategies to encourage fruit and vegetable consumption among children.

              The Cafeteria Power Plus project examined whether a cafeteria-based intervention would increase the fruit and vegetable (FV) consumption of children. Twenty-six schools were randomly assigned to either an intervention or control condition. Baseline lunch observations of a sample (N = 1668) of first- and third-grade students occurred in the spring of 2000; follow-up was in the spring of 2002. The intervention took place during two consecutive school years beginning in the fall of 2000 and consisted of daily activities (increasing the availability, attractiveness, and encouragement for FV) and special events (kick-offs, samplings, challenge weeks, theater production, and finale meal). Training of food-service staff and cook managers was ongoing throughout the intervention phase. Students in the intervention schools significantly increased their total fruit intake. Process measures indicated that verbal encouragement by food-service staff was associated with outcomes. The outcomes suggest that multicomponent interventions are more powerful than cafeteria programs alone with this age group.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nutr Res Pract
                Nutr Res Pract
                NRP
                Nutrition Research and Practice
                The Korean Nutrition Society and the Korean Society of Community Nutrition
                1976-1457
                2005-6168
                February 2013
                04 February 2013
                : 7
                : 1
                : 66-71
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Food and Nutrition, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul 140-742, Korea.
                [2 ]Graduate School of Education, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul 140-742, Korea.
                [3 ]Department of Food and Nutrition, Sookmyung Women's University, Seoul 140-742, Korea.
                [4 ]Department of LCB Hospitality Management, Sookmyung Women's University, Chungpa-ro 47-gil, Yongsan-gu, Seoul 140-742, Korea.
                Author notes
                Corresponding Author: Ji-young Yoon, Tel. 82-2-2077-7372, Fax. 82-2-2077-7319, yjy0823@ 123456sm.ac.kr
                Article
                10.4162/nrp.2013.7.1.66
                3572228
                23422683
                769ca468-4b25-41c7-9dc4-5f2d259728bb
                ©2013 The Korean Nutrition Society and the Korean Society of Community Nutrition

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                History
                : 24 September 2012
                : 23 January 2013
                : 23 January 2013
                Categories
                Original Research

                Nutrition & Dietetics
                school foodservice,satisfaction,korea,us
                Nutrition & Dietetics
                school foodservice, satisfaction, korea, us

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