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      Effects of magnolol on egg production, egg quality, antioxidant capacity, and intestinal health of laying hens in the late phase of the laying cycle

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          Abstract

          Magnolol is a multifunctional plant polyphenol. To evaluate the effects of magnolol on laying hens in the late laying period, 360 (50-week-old) laying hens were randomly assigned to 4 dietary treatments: a non-supplemented control diet ( C), and control diets supplemented with 100, 200, and 300 mg/kg of magnolol ( M100, M200, and M300), respectively. Each treatment had 6 replicates with 15 hens per replicate. Results showed that dietary supplementation of 200 and 300 mg/kg of magnolol increased the laying rate and the M200 group had a lower feed conversion ratio ( P < 0.05). Magnolol supplementation (200 and 300 mg/kg) could linearly increase albumen height and Haugh unit of fresh eggs in the late phase of the laying cycle ( P < 0.01). And magnolol linearly alleviated the decline of the albumen height and Haugh unit of eggs stored for 14 d ( P < 0.01). The total superoxide dismutase activity in the ovaries of M100 group was greater than that in the other treatments ( P < 0.05). As dietary magnolol levels increased, villus height of jejunum and ileum linearly increased ( P < 0.01). M200 and M300 groups had higher expression level of occludin in the ileum compared with group C ( P < 0.01). The level of nitric oxide production and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression in the ileum of M200 group were lower than that in the C group ( P < 0.05). In conclusion, dietary supplementation of 200 and 300 mg/kg magnolol can improve hen performance, albumen quality of fresh and storage eggs, and hepatic lipid metabolism in the late laying cycle. Also, magnolol has a good effect on increasing villi and improving the intestinal mucosal mechanical barrier function.

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          Magnolol: A Neolignan from the Magnolia Family for the Prevention and Treatment of Cancer

          The past few decades have witnessed widespread research to challenge carcinogenesis; however, it remains one of the most important health concerns with the worst prognosis and diagnosis. Increasing lines of evidence clearly show that the rate of cancer incidence will increase in future and will create global havoc, designating it as an epidemic. Conventional chemotherapeutics and treatment with synthetic disciplines are often associated with adverse side effects and development of chemoresistance. Thus, discovering novel economic and patient friendly drugs that are safe and efficacious is warranted. Several natural compounds have proved their potential against this dreadful disease so far. Magnolol is a hydroxylated biphenyl isolated from the root and stem bark of Magnolia tree. Magnolol can efficiently prevent or inhibit the growth of various cancers originating from different organs such as brain, breast, cervical, colon, liver, lung, prostate, skin, etc. Considering these perspectives, the current review primarily focuses on the fascinating role of magnolol against various types of cancers, and the source and chemistry of magnolol and the molecular mechanism underlying the targets of magnolol are discussed. This review proposes magnolol as a suitable candidate that can be appropriately designed and established into a potent anti-cancer drug.
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            Safety and Toxicology of Magnolol and Honokiol

            Magnolia officinalis and Magnolia obovata bark extracts have been used for thousands of years in Chinese and Japanese traditional medicines and are still widely employed as herbal preparations for their sedative, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antibiotic, and antispastic effects. Neolignans, particularly magnolol and honokiol, are the main substances responsible for the beneficial properties of the magnolia bark extract (MBE). The content of magnolol and honokiol in MBE depends on different factors, including the Magnolia plant species, the area of origin, the part of the plant employed, and the method used to prepare the extract. The biological and pharmacological activities of magnolol and honokiol have been extensively investigated. Here we review the safety and toxicological properties of magnolol and honokiol as pure substances or as components of concentrated MBE, including the potential side-effects in humans after oral intake. In vitro and in vivo genotoxicity studies indicated that concentrated MBE has no mutagenic and genotoxic potential, while a subchronic study performed according to OECD (Organisation for Economic Co-operation and Development) guidelines established a no adverse effect level for concentrated MBE > 240 mg/kg b.w/d. Similar to other dietary polyphenols, magnolol and honokiol are subject to glucuronidation, and despite a relatively quick clearance, an interaction with pharmaceutical active principles or other herbal constituents cannot be excluded. However, intervention trials employing concentrated MBE for up to 1 y did not report adverse effects. In conclusion, over the recent years different food safety authorities evaluated magnolol and honokiol and considered them safe.
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              Polyphenols as Potential Attenuators of Heat Stress in Poultry Production

              Heat stress is a non-specific physiological response of the body when exposed to high ambient temperatures, which can break the balance of body redox and result in oxidative stress that affects growth performance as well as the health of poultry species. Polyphenols have attracted much attention in recent years due to their antioxidant ability and thus, can be an effective attenuator of heat stress. In this paper, the potential mechanisms underlying the inhibitory effect of polyphenols on heat stress in poultry has been reviewed to provide a reference and ideas for future studies related to polyphenols and poultry production.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Poult Sci
                Poult Sci
                Poultry Science
                Elsevier
                0032-5791
                1525-3171
                02 November 2020
                February 2021
                02 November 2020
                : 100
                : 2
                : 835-843
                Affiliations
                []Institute of Animal Husbandry and Veterinary Sciences, Hubei Academy of Agricultural Sciences, Hubei Key Laboratory of Animal Embryo and Molecular Breeding, Wuhan 430064, China
                []Key Laboratory of Prevention and Control Agents for Animal Bacteriosis of Ministry of Agriculture and Rural Affairs, Wuhan 430064, China
                Author notes
                [1 ]Corresponding author: jintao001@ 123456163.com
                Article
                S0032-5791(20)30800-2
                10.1016/j.psj.2020.10.047
                7858092
                33518137
                77057136-81a0-4184-b910-75faa855a4f2
                © 2020 Published by Elsevier Inc. on behalf of Poultry Science Association Inc.

                This is an open access article under the CC BY-NC-ND license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-nd/4.0/).

                History
                : 26 June 2020
                : 19 October 2020
                Categories
                Metabolism and Nutrition

                magnolol,hen,egg quality,antioxidant capacity,intestinal health

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