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      Effects of Angiotensin-Converting Enzyme Gene Polymorphism on the Left-Ventricular Function and Mass in Patients with Acromegaly

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          Abstract

          In this study we have investigated the contribution of the ACE genotype to the development of left-ventricular hypertrophy (LVH) and systolic and diastolic dysfunctions in acromegalic patients. The study group consisted of 30 acromegalic patients (21 women and 9 men, age: 37.9 ± 10.8 years, disease duration: 9.0 ± 6.9 years). The distribution of the DD, ID and II genotypes was 40.0 (n = 12), 46.6 (n = 14) and 13.3% (n = 4), respectively, being similar to frequencies observed in a healthy population. Plasma ACE levels were 55.0 ± 12.0 (45–84), 28.7 ± 15.7 (8–58) and 24.5 ± 12.0 (16–33) U/l in patients with the DD, ID and II genotype, respectively. The mean serum ACE activity in the DD genotype was significantly higher than in the heterozygous group (p < 0.0001). Serum ACE activity showed a significant negative association with the mean growth hormone level (r = –0.52, p = 0.007). The LV early diastolic flow velocity/LV presystolic flow velocity (E/A) ratios were 1.2 ± 0.4 for the DD genotype, 1.3 ± 0.3 for the ID genotype and 0.7 ± 0.1 for the II genotype. The E/A ratio was considerably lower in acromegalic patients with the II genotype compared to the other genotypes (p = 0.03). The LV mass index (LVMI) values were 131.5 ± 4.2 g/m<sup>2</sup> for the DD genotype, 141.7 ± 50.3 g/m<sup>2</sup> for the ID genotype and 159.6 ± 48.2 g/m<sup>2</sup> for the II genotype. However, there was no significant difference in LVMI among allelic groups. All other indices of systolic and diastolic function were not statistically different in the acromegalic patients. The present data fail to support a role of ACE gene polymorphism in determining LVH in acromegalic patients. However, the I allele may prove as a useful marker predicting the development of diastolic dysfunction in acromegalic patients.

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          A prospective evaluation of an angiotensin-converting-enzyme gene polymorphism and the risk of ischemic heart disease.

          In a previous study, men with a history of myocardial infarction were found to have an increased prevalence of homozygosity for the deletional allele (D) of the angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) gene. The D allele is associated with higher levels of ACE, which may predispose a person to ischemic heart disease. We investigated the association between the ACE genotype and the incidence of myocardial infarction, as well as other manifestations of ischemic heart disease, in a large, prospective cohort of U.S. male physicians. In the Physicians' Health Study, ischemic heart disease as defined by angina, coronary revascularization, or myocardial infarction developed in 1250 men by 1992. They were matched with 2340 controls according to age and smoking history. Zygosity for the deletion-insertion (D-I) polymorphism of the ACE gene was determined by an assay based on the polymerase chain reaction. Data were analyzed for both matched pairs and unmatched samples, with adjustment for the effects of known or suspected risk factors by conditional and nonconditional logistic regression, respectively. The ACE genotype was not associated with the occurrence of either ischemic heart disease or myocardial infarction. The adjusted relative risk associated with the D allele was 1.07 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.96 to 1.19; P = 0.24) for ischemic heart disease and 1.05 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.89 to 1.25; P = 0.56) for myocardial infarction, if an additive mode of inheritance is assumed. Additional analyses assuming dominant and recessive effects of the D allele also failed to show any association, as did the examination of low-risk subgroups. In a large, prospectively followed population of U.S. male physicians, the presence of the D allele of the ACE gene conferred no appreciable increase in the risk of ischemic heart disease or myocardial infarction.
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            Angiotensin-converting enzyme DD genotype in patients with ischaemic or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy.

            Polymorphism in the angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) gene has been shown to correlate with circulating ACE concentrations, and also to be an independent risk factor for the development of myocardial infarction, particularly in men thought to be at low risk by standard criteria. We determined the genotypes of individuals with end-stage heart failure due to either ischaemic dilated cardiomyopathy (102) or idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (112) and compared these to organ donors with normally functioning hearts (79). Genotypes were determined by the polymerase chain reaction with oligonucleotide primers flanking the polymorphic region in intron 16 of the ACE gene to amplify template DNA isolated from patients. Compared with the DD frequency in the control population, the frequency of the ACE DD genotype was 48% higher in individuals with idiopathic dilated cardiomyopathy (p = 0.008) and 63% higher in subjects with ischaemic cardiomyopathy (p = 0.008), suggesting that an ACE gene variant may contribute to the pathogenesis of both types of cardiomyopathy.
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              Absence of association or genetic linkage between the angiotensin-converting-enzyme gene and left ventricular mass.

              Homozygous carries of the D allele of the angiotensin-converting-enzyme (ACE) gene have been reported to be at increased risk for various cardiovascular disorders, including left ventricular hypertrophy. We investigated the potential role of the ACE gene in influencing left ventricular mass. Quantitative echocardiographic data and DNA samples were available for 2439 subjects from the Framingham Heart Study. ACE genotypes were determined by an assay based on the polymerase chain reaction. (The D allele of the ACE gene contains a deletion, whereas the I [insertion] allele does not.) Left ventricular mass and the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy, adjusted for clinical covariates, were analyzed according to genotype. Genetic linkage between the ACE locus and left ventricular mass was evaluated by quantitative analysis of pairs of siblings. The ACE genotype was associated neither with left ventricular mass nor with the prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy. Mean (+/-SE) left ventricular mass (adjusted for sex) among subjects carrying the DD, DI, and II genotypes was 165+/-1.6, 165+/-1.3, and 166+/-2.0 g, respectively (P=0.90). The prevalence of left ventricular hypertrophy among the three genotype groups was 15.6 percent, 13.6 percent, and 15.6 percent, respectively (P=0.36), and the adjusted relative risk of left ventricular hypertrophy associated with the DD genotype was 1.10 (95 percent confidence interval, 0.86 to 1.19). Linkage analysis in 759 pairs of siblings using both the ACE D/I marker and a microsatellite polymorphism at the neighboring locus for the human growth hormone gene failed to support any role of ACE in influencing left ventricular mass. The ACE genotype showed no association with echocardiographically determined left ventricular mass, nor did it confer an increased risk of left ventricular hypertrophy. We found no appreciable role of the ACE gene in influencing left ventricular mass.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CRD
                Cardiology
                10.1159/issn.0008-6312
                Cardiology
                S. Karger AG
                0008-6312
                1421-9751
                1999
                April 2000
                19 April 2000
                : 92
                : 4
                : 226-231
                Affiliations
                Departments of aEndocrinology and Metabolism, bMedical Genetics, cCardiology and dBiochemistry, Hacettepe University Medical School, Ankara, Turkey
                Article
                6978 Cardiology 1999;92:226–231
                10.1159/000006978
                10844381
                77c498e4-47c1-4b01-91a9-15a915864109
                © 2000 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                History
                Page count
                Tables: 2, References: 32, Pages: 6
                Categories
                General Cardiology

                General medicine,Neurology,Cardiovascular Medicine,Internal medicine,Nephrology
                Acromegaly,Ventricular dysfunction,Ventricular hypertrophy,Angiotensin-converting enzyme gene polymorphism

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