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      Fossil Platygastroidea in the National Museum of Natural History, Smithsonian Institution

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      Journal of Hymenoptera Research

      Pensoft Publishers

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          Abstract

          Platygastroid wasps preserved in Dominican amber and oil shale from the Kishenehn formation (Montana, USA) in the National Museum of Natural History are catalogued. Compression fossils in Kishenehn oil shale yield a specimen of Fidiobia, a specimen of Telenominae, and a specimen with a Scelio-type ovipositor system. Twenty-five described genera are documented from Dominican amber, all of which are known from the extant fauna: Allostemma Masner & Huggert, Aradophagus Ashmead, Calliscelio Ashmead, Calotelea Westwood, Duta Nixon, Embidobia Ashmead, Embioctonus Masner, Fidiobia Ashmead, Gryon Haliday, Idris Förster, Inostemma Haliday, Leptacis Förster, Leptoteleia Kieffer, Macroteleia Kieffer, Odontacolus Kieffer, Opisthacantha Ashmead, Parabaeus Kieffer, Paridris Kieffer, Platygaster Latreille, Plaumannion Masner & Johnson, Probaryconus Kieffer, Psilanteris Kieffer, Spiniteleia Masner, Telenomus Haliday, and Triteleia Kieffer. Fourteen of these genera do not have previously published fossil records and are here documented for the first time. Plaumannion fistulosum Talamas, sp. n., and Paridris yumai Talamas, sp. n. are described as new species. A phylogenetic analysis of Paridris including P. yumai is presented. A male specimen belonging to an undescribed scelionine genus is documented and illustrated, but not described, as the best features for circumscribing this taxon are found in the female, and monographic work on this group is currently underway by other workers. Four specimens from Baltic amber, belonging to Leptacis, Platygaster, and Sembilanocera Brues are presented for comparison to extant specimens and inclusions in Dominican amber.

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          A Total-Evidence Approach to Dating with Fossils, Applied to the Early Radiation of the Hymenoptera

          Phylogenies are usually dated by calibrating interior nodes against the fossil record. This relies on indirect methods that, in the worst case, misrepresent the fossil information. Here, we contrast such node dating with an approach that includes fossils along with the extant taxa in a Bayesian total-evidence analysis. As a test case, we focus on the early radiation of the Hymenoptera, mostly documented by poorly preserved impression fossils that are difficult to place phylogenetically. Specifically, we compare node dating using nine calibration points derived from the fossil record with total-evidence dating based on 343 morphological characters scored for 45 fossil (4--20 complete) and 68 extant taxa. In both cases we use molecular data from seven markers (∼5 kb) for the extant taxa. Because it is difficult to model speciation, extinction, sampling, and fossil preservation realistically, we develop a simple uniform prior for clock trees with fossils, and we use relaxed clock models to accommodate rate variation across the tree. Despite considerable uncertainty in the placement of most fossils, we find that they contribute significantly to the estimation of divergence times in the total-evidence analysis. In particular, the posterior distributions on divergence times are less sensitive to prior assumptions and tend to be more precise than in node dating. The total-evidence analysis also shows that four of the seven Hymenoptera calibration points used in node dating are likely to be based on erroneous or doubtful assumptions about the fossil placement. With respect to the early radiation of Hymenoptera, our results suggest that the crown group dates back to the Carboniferous, ∼309 Ma (95% interval: 291--347 Ma), and diversified into major extant lineages much earlier than previously thought, well before the Triassic. [Bayesian inference; fossil dating; morphological evolution; relaxed clock; statistical phylogenetics.]
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            A Gross Anatomy Ontology for Hymenoptera

            Hymenoptera is an extraordinarily diverse lineage, both in terms of species numbers and morphotypes, that includes sawflies, bees, wasps, and ants. These organisms serve critical roles as herbivores, predators, parasitoids, and pollinators, with several species functioning as models for agricultural, behavioral, and genomic research. The collective anatomical knowledge of these insects, however, has been described or referred to by labels derived from numerous, partially overlapping lexicons. The resulting corpus of information—millions of statements about hymenopteran phenotypes—remains inaccessible due to language discrepancies. The Hymenoptera Anatomy Ontology (HAO) was developed to surmount this challenge and to aid future communication related to hymenopteran anatomy. The HAO was built using newly developed interfaces within mx, a Web-based, open source software package, that enables collaborators to simultaneously contribute to an ontology. Over twenty people contributed to the development of this ontology by adding terms, genus differentia, references, images, relationships, and annotations. The database interface returns an Open Biomedical Ontology (OBO) formatted version of the ontology and includes mechanisms for extracting candidate data and for publishing a searchable ontology to the Web. The application tools are subject-agnostic and may be used by others initiating and developing ontologies. The present core HAO data constitute 2,111 concepts, 6,977 terms (labels for concepts), 3,152 relations, 4,361 sensus (links between terms, concepts, and references) and over 6,000 text and graphical annotations. The HAO is rooted with the Common Anatomy Reference Ontology (CARO), in order to facilitate interoperability with and future alignment to other anatomy ontologies, and is available through the OBO Foundry ontology repository and BioPortal. The HAO provides a foundation through which connections between genomic, evolutionary developmental biology, phylogenetic, taxonomic, and morphological research can be actualized. Inherent mechanisms for feedback and content delivery demonstrate the effectiveness of remote, collaborative ontology development and facilitate future refinement of the HAO.
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              Late Paleogene extensional collapse of the Cordilleran foreland fold and thrust belt

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Hymenoptera Research
                JHR
                Pensoft Publishers
                1314-2607
                1070-9428
                October 12 2015
                October 12 2015
                : 47
                : 1-52
                Article
                10.3897/JHR.47.5730
                © 2015
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