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      Computer-aided drug design and inhibitive effect of a novel nitrogenous heterocyclic compound and its mechanism on glioma U251 cells and breast cancer MCF-7 cells

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          Abstract

          Background

          Glioma and breast cancer are severe malignant cancerous tumors that highlight the importance of developing new anti-cancer drugs. The aim of this study was to explore the effects of a novel nitrogenous heterocyclic compound on glioma and breast cancer cells and to determine its mechanism of action.

          Methods

          We designed and synthesized a novel nitrogenous heterocyclic compound, 3-(4-amino-1H-benzo[d]imidazole-2-carboxamido)-4-oxo-3,4-dihydroimidazo[5,1-d][1,2,3,5] tetrazine-8-carboxamide, based on alkylglycerone phosphate synthase (AGPS) using computer-aided drug design (CADD), and we measured its effect on the proliferation, invasion, cell cycle and apoptosis of U251 glioma and MCF-7 breast cancer cells. In addition, the compound’s effect on the expression of tumor-related mRNA, circular RNAs (circRNAs) and long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) was explored.

          Results

          It was found that the nitrogenous heterocyclic compound could induce cell cycle arrest at the G2/M phase of U251/MCF-7 cells and activate apoptosis. Real-time PCR showed that the expression levels of tumor-related mRNA, circRNAs and lncRNAs were impacted.

          Conclusion

          We concluded that the nitrogenous heterocyclic compound inhibits the proliferation and invasion of U251 glioma and MCF-7 breast cancer cells through the induction of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest by regulating tumor-related genes.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Silencing of cZNF292 circular RNA suppresses human glioma tube formation via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway

          CircRNA is a novel type of RNA molecule formed by a covalently closed loop which have no 5′-3′ polarity and possess no polyA tail and relatively stable due to the cyclic structure. Therefore, they may serve as potential targets and diagnosis biomarkers for tumor therapy. cZNF292 is an important circular oncogenic RNA and plays a critical role in the progression of tube formation. This study is aimed at exploring the role of cZNF292 in human glioma tube formation and its potential mechanism of action. We found that cZNF292 silencing suppresses tube formation by inhibiting glioma cell proliferation and cell cycle progression. Cell cycle progression in human glioma U87MG and U251 cells was halted at S/G2/M phase via the Wnt/β-catenin signaling pathway and related genes such as PRR11, Cyclin A, p-CDK2, VEGFR-1/2, p-VEGFR-1/2 and EGFR. The results suggest that cZNF292 silencing plays an important role in the tube formation process and has potential for application as a therapeutic target and biomarker in glioma.
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            Cell cycle regulation by the intrinsically disordered proteins p21 and p27.

            Today, it is widely accepted that proteins that lack highly defined globular three-dimensional structures, termed IDPs (intrinsically disordered proteins), play key roles in myriad biological processes. Our understanding of how intrinsic disorder mediates biological function is, however, incomplete. In the present paper, we review disorder-mediated cell cycle regulation by two intrinsically disordered proteins, p21 and p27. A structural adaptation mechanism involving a stretchable dynamic linker helix allows p21 to promiscuously recognize the various Cdk (cyclin-dependent kinase)-cyclin complexes that regulate cell division. Disorder within p27 mediates transmission of an N-terminal tyrosine phosphorylation signal to a C-terminal threonine phosphorylation, constituting a signalling conduit. These mechanisms are mediated by folding upon binding p21/p27's regulatory targets. However, residual disorder within the bound state contributes critically to these functional mechanisms. Our studies provide insights into how intrinsic protein disorder mediates regulatory processes and opportunities for designing drugs that target cancer-associated IDPs.
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              Functional miRNAs in breast cancer drug resistance

              Owing to improved early surveillance and advanced therapy strategies, the current death rate due to breast cancer has decreased; nevertheless, drug resistance and relapse remain obstacles on the path to successful systematic treatment. Multiple mechanisms responsible for drug resistance have been elucidated, and miRNAs seem to play a major part in almost every aspect of cancer progression, including tumorigenesis, metastasis, and drug resistance. In recent years, exosomes have emerged as novel modes of intercellular signaling vehicles, initiating cell–cell communication through their fusion with target cell membranes, delivering functional molecules including miRNAs and proteins. This review particularly focuses on enumerating functional miRNAs involved in breast cancer drug resistance as well as their targets and related mechanisms. Subsequently, we discuss the prospects and challenges of miRNA function in drug resistance and highlight valuable approaches for the investigation of the role of exosomal miRNAs in breast cancer progression and drug resistance.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove Medical Press
                1177-8881
                2018
                27 June 2018
                : 12
                : 1931-1939
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Tumor Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College, Bengbu 233004, China, aqianliyu2006@ 123456163.com
                [2 ]Tianjin Key Laboratory of Cerebral Vessels and Neuraldegenerative Disease, Department of Clinical Laboratory, Tianjin Huanhu Hospital, Tianjin 300350, China, zhuyutj@ 123456126.com
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Liyu Qian, Department of Tumor Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Bengbu Medical College, 287 Changhuai Road, Bengbu 233004, China, Email aqianliyu2006@ 123456163.com
                Yu Zhu, Tianjin Key Laboratory of Cerebral Vessels and Neuraldegenerative Disease, Department of Clinical Laboratory, Tianjin Huanhu Hospital, 6 Jizhao Road, Jinnan District, Tianjin 300350, China, Email zhuyutj@ 123456126.com
                Article
                dddt-12-1931
                10.2147/DDDT.S168130
                6027699
                © 2018 Qian and Zhu. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

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                Original Research

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