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      Transforming Growth Factor-Beta-1 Latency-Associated Peptide and Soluble Betaglycan Prevent a Glucose-Induced Increase in Fibronectin Production in Cultured Human Mesangial Cells

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          This study was performed to investigate the effects of transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1) latency-associated peptide (LAP) and betaglycan on TGF-β1 activity, and on the glucose-induced overproduction of fibronectin in cultured human mesangial cells (MCs). We found that recombinant LAP and recombinant soluble betaglycan decrease the active form of TGF-β1, measured by ELISA, in a dose-dependent manner in a cell-free system. The effective dosages of LAP and soluble betaglycan for a 50% reduction were approximately 20- and 75-fold of the TGF-β1 concentration, respectively. The active form of TGF-β1 in the media secreted from MCs was significantly (p < 0.01) reduced by the addition of 10 nmol/l LAP and 10 nmol/l soluble betaglycan with no significant change in total (active + latent) TGF-β1. Recombinant LAP and soluble betaglycan also inhibited a recombinant TGF-β1-stimulated increase in fibronectin production in MCs. Furthermore, the glucose-induced increase in fibronectin secreted from MCs was significantly (p < 0.01) suppressed by concomitant incubation with LAP or soluble betaglycan, while these agents had no effect on fibronectin production under physiological glucose concentrations. These results indicate that recombinant LAP and soluble betaglycan suppress the glucose-induced overproduction of fibronectin presumably via inhibition of TGF-β1 activity in MCs. Further in vivo studies are needed to define the possible beneficial effects of these agents in diabetic nephropathy.

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          Long-term prevention of renal insufficiency, excess matrix gene expression, and glomerular mesangial matrix expansion by treatment with monoclonal antitransforming growth factor-beta antibody in db/db diabetic mice.

          Emerging evidence suggests that transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) is an important mediator of diabetic nephropathy. We showed previously that short-term treatment with a neutralizing monoclonal anti-TGF-beta antibody (alphaT) in streptozotocin-diabetic mice prevents early changes of renal hypertrophy and increased matrix mRNA. To establish that overactivity of the renal TGF-beta system mediates the functional and structural changes of the more advanced stages of nephropathy, we tested whether chronic administration of alphaT prevents renal insufficiency and glomerulosclerosis in the db/db mouse, a model of type 2 diabetes that develops overt nephropathy. Diabetic db/db mice and nondiabetic db/m littermates were treated intraperitoneally with alphaT or control IgG, 300 microgram three times per week for 8 wk. Treatment with alphaT, but not with IgG, significantly decreased the plasma TGF-beta1 concentration without decreasing the plasma glucose concentration. The IgG-treated db/db mice developed albuminuria, renal insufficiency, and glomerular mesangial matrix expansion associated with increased renal mRNAs encoding alpha1(IV) collagen and fibronectin. On the other hand, treatment with alphaT completely prevented the increase in plasma creatinine concentration, the decrease in urinary creatinine clearance, and the expansion of mesangial matrix in db/db mice. The increase in renal matrix mRNAs was substantially attenuated, but the excretion of urinary albumin factored for creatinine clearance was not significantly affected by alphaT treatment. We conclude that chronic inhibition of the biologic actions of TGF-beta with a neutralizing monoclonal antibody in db/db mice prevents the glomerulosclerosis and renal insufficiency resulting from type 2 diabetes.
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            The recombinant proregion of transforming growth factor beta1 (latency-associated peptide) inhibits active transforming growth factor beta1 in transgenic mice.

            All three isoforms of transforming growth factors beta (TGF-betal, TGF-beta2, and TGF-beta3) are secreted as latent complexes and activated extracellularly, leading to the release of the mature cytokines from their noncovalently associated proregions, also known as latency-associated peptides (LAPs). The LAP region of TGF-beta1 was expressed in a baculovirus expression system and purified to homogeneity. In vitro assays of growth inhibition and gene induction mediated by TGF-beta3 demonstrate that recombinant TGF-beta1 LAP is a potent inhibitor of the activities of TGF-betal, -beta2, and -beta3. Effective dosages of LAP for 50% neutralization of TGF-beta activities range from 4.7- to 80-fold molar excess depending on the TGF-beta isoform and activity examined. Using 125I-labeled LAP, we show that the intraperitoneal application route is effective for systemic administration of LAP. Comparison of concentrations of LAP in tissues shows a homogenous pattern in most organs with the exception of heart and muscle, in which levels of LAP are 4- to 8-fold lower. In transgenic mice with elevated hepatic levels of bioactive TGF-betal, treatment with recombinant LAP completely reverses suppression of the early proliferative response induced by TGF-beta1 in remnant livers after partial hepatectomy. The results suggest that recombinant LAP is a potent inhibitor of bioactive TGF-beta both in vitro and in vivo, after intraperitoneal administration. Recombinant LAP should be a useful tool for novel approaches to study and therapeutically modulate pathophysiological processes mediated by TGF-beta3.
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              Renal expression of transforming growth factor-β inducible gene-h3 (βig-h3) in normal and diabetic rats11See Editorial by Border and Noble, p. 1390.

              Transforming growth factor-beta (TGF-beta) has been implicated in the pathogenesis of a number of kidney diseases characterized by glomerulosclerosis and tubulointerstitial fibrosis. TGF-beta is secreted in a latent form requiring extracellular modification to become biologically active. TGF-beta inducible gene-h3 (beta ig-h3) is a recently identified TGF-beta-induced gene product. The present study sought to examine beta ig-h3 expression in normal and diabetic rats.

                Author and article information

                S. Karger AG
                August 2002
                15 July 2002
                : 91
                : 4
                : 606-611
                aResearch Division, Second Department of Internal Medicine, Toho University School of Medicine, Tokyo, and bDepartment of Internal Medicine, Shironishi Hospital, Shironishi Medical Foundation, Tokyo, Japan
                65020 Nephron 2002;91:606–611
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 3, Tables: 1, References: 25, Pages: 6
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