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      The global, regional, and national burden of oesophageal cancer and its attributable risk factors in 195 countries and territories, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

      GBD 2017 Oesophageal Cancer Collaborators

      The Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology

      Elsevier B.V

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          Summary

          Background

          Oesophageal cancer is a common and often fatal cancer that has two main histological subtypes: oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma and oesophageal adenocarcinoma. Updated statistics on the incidence and mortality of oesophageal cancer, and on the disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) caused by the disease, can assist policy makers in allocating resources for prevention, treatment, and care of oesophageal cancer. We report the latest estimates of these statistics for 195 countries and territories between 1990 and 2017, by age, sex, and Socio-demographic Index (SDI), using data from the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD).

          Methods

          We used data from vital registration systems, vital registration-samples, verbal autopsy records, and cancer registries, combined with relevant modelling, to estimate the mortality, incidence, and burden of oesophageal cancer from 1990 to 2017. Mortality-to-incidence ratios (MIRs) were estimated and fed into a Cause of Death Ensemble model (CODEm) including risk factors. MIRs were used for mortality and non-fatal modelling. Estimates of DALYs attributable to the main risk factors of oesophageal cancer available in GBD were also calculated. The proportion of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma to all oesophageal cancers was extracted by use of publicly available data, and its variation was examined against SDI, the Healthcare Access and Quality (HAQ) Index, and available risk factors in GBD that are specific for oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma (eg, unimproved water source and indoor air pollution) and for oesophageal adenocarcinoma (gastro-oesophageal reflux disease).

          Findings

          There were 473 000 (95% uncertainty interval [95% UI] 459 000–485 000) new cases of oesophageal cancer and 436 000 (425 000–448 000) deaths due to oesophageal cancer in 2017. Age-standardised incidence was 5·9 (5·7–6·1) per 100 000 population and age-standardised mortality was 5·5 (5·3–5·6) per 100 000. Oesophageal cancer caused 9·78 million (9·53–10·03) DALYs, with an age-standardised rate of 120 (117–123) per 100 000 population. Between 1990 and 2017, age-standardised incidence decreased by 22·0% (18·6–25·2), mortality decreased by 29·0% (25·8–32·0), and DALYs decreased by 33·4% (30·4–36·1) globally. However, as a result of population growth and ageing, the total number of new cases increased by 52·3% (45·9–58·9), from 310 000 (300 000–322 000) to 473 000 (459 000–485 000); the number of deaths increased by 40·0% (34·1–46·3), from 311 000 (301 000–323 000) to 436 000 (425 000–448 000); and total DALYs increased by 27·4% (22·1–33·1), from 7·68 million (7·42–7·97) to 9·78 million (9·53–10·03). At the national level, China had the highest number of incident cases (235 000 [223 000–246 000]), deaths (213 000 [203 000–223 000]), and DALYs (4·46 million [4·25–4·69]) in 2017. The highest national-level age-standardised incidence rates in 2017 were observed in Malawi (23·0 [19·4–26·5] per 100 000 population) and Mongolia (18·5 [16·4–20·8] per 100 000). In 2017, age-standardised incidence was 2·7 times higher, mortality 2·9 times higher, and DALYs 3·0 times higher in males than in females. In 2017, a substantial proportion of oesophageal cancer DALYs were attributable to known risk factors: tobacco smoking (39·0% [35·5–42·2]), alcohol consumption (33·8% [27·3–39·9]), high BMI (19·5% [6·3–36·0]), a diet low in fruits (19·1% [4·2–34·6]), and use of chewing tobacco (7·5% [5·2–9·6]). Countries with a low SDI and HAQ Index and high levels of indoor air pollution had a higher proportion of oesophageal squamous cell carcinoma to all oesophageal cancer cases than did countries with a high SDI and HAQ Index and with low levels of indoor air pollution.

          Interpretation

          Despite reductions in age-standardised incidence and mortality rates, oesophageal cancer remains a major cause of cancer mortality and burden across the world. Oesophageal cancer is a highly fatal disease, requiring increased primary prevention efforts and, possibly, screening in some high-risk areas. Substantial variation exists in age-standardised incidence rates across regions and countries, for reasons that are unclear.

          Funding

          Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.

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          Most cited references 58

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          Global Cancer Statistics 2018: GLOBOCAN Estimates of Incidence and Mortality Worldwide for 36 Cancers in 185 Countries

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            Global, regional, and national incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability for 354 diseases and injuries for 195 countries and territories, 1990–2017: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017

            Summary Background The Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors Study 2017 (GBD 2017) includes a comprehensive assessment of incidence, prevalence, and years lived with disability (YLDs) for 354 causes in 195 countries and territories from 1990 to 2017. Previous GBD studies have shown how the decline of mortality rates from 1990 to 2016 has led to an increase in life expectancy, an ageing global population, and an expansion of the non-fatal burden of disease and injury. These studies have also shown how a substantial portion of the world's population experiences non-fatal health loss with considerable heterogeneity among different causes, locations, ages, and sexes. Ongoing objectives of the GBD study include increasing the level of estimation detail, improving analytical strategies, and increasing the amount of high-quality data. Methods We estimated incidence and prevalence for 354 diseases and injuries and 3484 sequelae. We used an updated and extensive body of literature studies, survey data, surveillance data, inpatient admission records, outpatient visit records, and health insurance claims, and additionally used results from cause of death models to inform estimates using a total of 68 781 data sources. Newly available clinical data from India, Iran, Japan, Jordan, Nepal, China, Brazil, Norway, and Italy were incorporated, as well as updated claims data from the USA and new claims data from Taiwan (province of China) and Singapore. We used DisMod-MR 2.1, a Bayesian meta-regression tool, as the main method of estimation, ensuring consistency between rates of incidence, prevalence, remission, and cause of death for each condition. YLDs were estimated as the product of a prevalence estimate and a disability weight for health states of each mutually exclusive sequela, adjusted for comorbidity. We updated the Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a summary development indicator of income per capita, years of schooling, and total fertility rate. Additionally, we calculated differences between male and female YLDs to identify divergent trends across sexes. GBD 2017 complies with the Guidelines for Accurate and Transparent Health Estimates Reporting. Findings Globally, for females, the causes with the greatest age-standardised prevalence were oral disorders, headache disorders, and haemoglobinopathies and haemolytic anaemias in both 1990 and 2017. For males, the causes with the greatest age-standardised prevalence were oral disorders, headache disorders, and tuberculosis including latent tuberculosis infection in both 1990 and 2017. In terms of YLDs, low back pain, headache disorders, and dietary iron deficiency were the leading Level 3 causes of YLD counts in 1990, whereas low back pain, headache disorders, and depressive disorders were the leading causes in 2017 for both sexes combined. All-cause age-standardised YLD rates decreased by 3·9% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 3·1–4·6) from 1990 to 2017; however, the all-age YLD rate increased by 7·2% (6·0–8·4) while the total sum of global YLDs increased from 562 million (421–723) to 853 million (642–1100). The increases for males and females were similar, with increases in all-age YLD rates of 7·9% (6·6–9·2) for males and 6·5% (5·4–7·7) for females. We found significant differences between males and females in terms of age-standardised prevalence estimates for multiple causes. The causes with the greatest relative differences between sexes in 2017 included substance use disorders (3018 cases [95% UI 2782–3252] per 100 000 in males vs s1400 [1279–1524] per 100 000 in females), transport injuries (3322 [3082–3583] vs 2336 [2154–2535]), and self-harm and interpersonal violence (3265 [2943–3630] vs 5643 [5057–6302]). Interpretation Global all-cause age-standardised YLD rates have improved only slightly over a period spanning nearly three decades. However, the magnitude of the non-fatal disease burden has expanded globally, with increasing numbers of people who have a wide spectrum of conditions. A subset of conditions has remained globally pervasive since 1990, whereas other conditions have displayed more dynamic trends, with different ages, sexes, and geographies across the globe experiencing varying burdens and trends of health loss. This study emphasises how global improvements in premature mortality for select conditions have led to older populations with complex and potentially expensive diseases, yet also highlights global achievements in certain domains of disease and injury. Funding Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
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              Global, Regional, and National Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life-years for 32 Cancer Groups, 1990 to 2015

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol
                Lancet Gastroenterol Hepatol
                The Lancet. Gastroenterology & Hepatology
                Elsevier B.V
                2468-1253
                01 April 2020
                June 2020
                01 April 2020
                : 5
                : 6
                : 582-597
                Author notes
                [* ]Correspondence to: Prof Mohsen Naghavi, Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA 98121, USA nagham@ 123456uw.edu
                [* ]Prof Reza Malekzadeh, Digestive Disease Research Institute, Tehran University of Medical Sciences, Tehran, Iran malek@ 123456tums.ac.ar
                [†]

                Collaborators are listed at the end of the Article

                Article
                S2468-1253(20)30007-8
                10.1016/S2468-1253(20)30007-8
                7232026
                32246941
                © 2020 The Author(s). Published by Elsevier Ltd. This is an Open Access article under the CC BY 4.0 license

                This is an open access article under the CC BY license (http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

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