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      Comorbidity of Internet use disorder and attention deficit hyperactivity disorder: Two adult case–control studies

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          Abstract

          Objectives

          There is good scientific evidence that attention deficit hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) is both a predictor and a comorbidity of addictive disorders in adulthood. These associations not only focus on substance-related addictions but also on behavioral addictions like gambling disorder and Internet use disorder (IUD). For IUD, systematic reviews have identified ADHD as one of the most prevalent comorbidities besides depressive and anxiety disorders. Yet, there is a need to further understand the connections between both disorders to derive implications for specific treatment and prevention. This is especially the case in adult clinical populations where little is known about these relations so far. This study was meant to further investigate this issue in more detail based on the general hypothesis that there is a decisive intersection of psychopathology and etiology between IUD and ADHD.

          Methods

          Two case–control samples were examined at a university hospital. Adult ADHD and IUD patients ran through a comprehensive clinical and psychometrical workup.

          Results

          We found support for the hypothesis that ADHD and IUD share psychopathological features. Among patients of each group, we found substantial prevalence rates of a comorbid ADHD in IUD and vice versa. Furthermore, ADHD symptoms were positively associated with media use times and symptoms of Internet addiction in both samples.

          Discussion

          Clinical practitioners should be aware of the close relationships between the two disorders both diagnostically and therapeutically. When it comes to regain control over one’s Internet use throughout treatment and rehabilitation, a potential shift of addiction must be kept in mind on side of practitioners and patients.

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          Most cited references 59

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          Neuroscience of attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder: the search for endophenotypes.

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            Impulsivity as a determinant and consequence of drug use: a review of underlying processes.

            Impulsive behaviors are closely linked to drug use and abuse, both as contributors to use and as consequences of use. Trait impulsivity is an important determinant of drug use during development, and in adults momentary 'state' increases in impulsive behavior may increase the likelihood of drug use, especially in individuals attempting to abstain. Conversely, acute and chronic effects of drug use may increase impulsive behaviors, which may in turn facilitate further drug use. However, these effects depend on the behavioral measure used to assess impulsivity. This article reviews data from controlled studies investigating different measures of impulsive behaviors, including delay discounting, behavioral inhibition and a newly proposed measure of inattention. Our findings support the hypothesis that drugs of abuse alter performance across independent behavioral measures of impulsivity. The findings lay the groundwork for studying the cognitive and neurobiological substrates of impulsivity, and for future studies on the role of impulsive behavior as both facilitator and a result of drug use.
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              Confirmation of the dimensional structure of the scl-90: A study in construct validation

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                jba
                JBA
                Journal of Behavioral Addictions
                J Behav Addict
                Akadémiai Kiadó (Budapest )
                2062-5871
                2063-5303
                26 December 2017
                December 2017
                : 6
                : 4
                : 490-504
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ]Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Ruhr University Bochum, LWL University Hospital , Bochum, Germany
                [ 2 ] General Practitioner , Edewecht, Germany
                [ 3 ] Clinic for Child and Adolescent Psychiatry, Psychosomatic and Psychotherapy , Oldenburg, Germany
                [ 4 ]Department of Psychiatry, Social Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Hannover Medical School , Hannover, Germany
                [ 5 ] Clinic for Psychosomatic and Psychotherapy, Hannover Medical School , Hannover, Germany
                [ 6 ] Asklepios Clinic North Psychiatry Ochsenzoll , Hamburg, Germany
                [ 7 ]Department of Psychiatry and Psychotherapy, Ludwig Noll Krankenhaus , Kassel, Germany
                Author notes
                [* ]Corresponding author: Bert Theodor te Wildt; Department of Psychosomatic Medicine and Psychotherapy, Ruhr University Bochum, LWL University Hospital, Alexandrinenstr 1-3, 44791, Bochum, Germany; Phone: +49 234 5077 3120/3333; Fax: +49 234 5077 3111; Emails: bert.tewildt@ 123456ruhr-uni-bochum.de , berttewildt@ 123456me.com
                Article
                10.1556/2006.6.2017.073
                6034949
                29280392
                © 2017 The Author(s)

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium for non-commercial purposes, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 5, Equations: 0, References: 61, Pages: 15
                Funding
                Funding sources: No financial support was received for this study.
                Categories
                FULL-LENGTH REPORT

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