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      Cellular Lipid Metabolism and the Role of Lipids in Progressive Renal Disease

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          Dyslipidemia contributes to the rate of progression of atherosclerosis and chronic kidney disease. Also, chronic kidney disease leads to the development of secondary abnormalities in lipid metabolism that contribute to increased cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. This review presents the mechanisms that underlie this risk. The mechanisms of normal cellular lipid metabolism and the abnormalities that develop in association with inflammation are reviewed. There is a special emphasis on foam cells in the kidney and on lipid-mediated changes in intrinsic kidney cells that lead to glomerulosclerosis and interstitial fibrosis. Correlates to studies performed in whole animals and humans are included.

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          Most cited references 25

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          The case for intrarenal hypertension in the initiation and progression of diabetic and other glomerulopathies.

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            The mammalian low-density lipoprotein receptor family.

            The low-density lipoprotein (LDL) receptor (LDL-R) family consists of cell-surface receptors that recognize extracellular ligands and internalize them for degradation by lysosomes. The LDL-R is the prototype of this family, which also contains very-low-density lipoprotein receptors (VLDL-R), apolipoprotein E receptor 2, LRP, and megalin. The family members contain four major structural modules: the cysteine-rich complement-type repeats, epidermal growth factor precursor-like repeats, a transmembrane domain, and a cytoplasmic domain. Each structural module serves distinct and important functions. These receptors bind several structurally dissimilar ligands. It is proposed that instead of a primary sequence, positive electrostatic potential in different ligands constitutes a receptor binding domain. This family of receptors plays crucial roles in various physiologic functions. LDL-R plays an important role in cholesterol homeostasis. Mutations cause familial hypercholesterolemia and premature coronary artery disease. LDL-R-related protein plays an important role in the clearance of plasma-activated alpha 2-macroglobulin and apolipoprotein E-enriched lipoproteins. It is essential for fetal development and has been associated with Alzheimer's disease. Megalin is the major receptor in absorptive epithelial cells of the proximal tubules and an antigenic determinant for Heymann nephritis in rats. Mutations in a chicken homolog of VLDL-R cause female sterility and premature atherosclerosis. This receptor is not expressed in liver tissue; however, transgenic expression of VLDL-R in liver corrects hypercholesterolemia in experiment animals, which suggests that it can be a candidate for gene therapy for various hyperlipidemias. The functional importance of individual receptors may lie in their differential tissue expression. The regulation of expression of these receptors occurs at the transcriptional level. Expression of the LDL-R is regulated by intracellular sterol levels involving novel membrane-bound transcription factors. Other members of the family are not regulated by sterols. All the members are, however, regulated by hormones and growth factors, but the mechanisms of regulation by hormones have not been elucidated. Studies of these receptors have provided important insights into receptor structure-function and mechanisms of ligand removal and catabolism. It is anticipated that increased knowledge about the LDL-R family members will open new avenues for the treatment of many disorders.
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              Role of sterol regulatory element-binding protein 1 in regulation of renal lipid metabolism and glomerulosclerosis in diabetes mellitus.

              Diabetic renal disease is associated with lipid deposits in the kidney. The purpose of our study was to determine whether there is altered regulation of the sterol regulatory element-binding proteins (SREBPs) in the diabetic kidney and whether SREBPs mediate the abnormal renal lipid metabolism and diabetic renal disease. In streptozotocin-induced diabetes in the rat, there were marked increases in SREBP-1 and fatty acid synthase (FAS) expression, resulting in increased triglyceride (TG) accumulation. Treatment of diabetic rats with insulin prevented the increased renal expression of SREBP-1 and the accumulation of TG. The role of hyperglycemia in the up-regulation of SREBP-1 was confirmed in renal cells cultured in a high glucose media. High glucose induced increased expression of SREBP-1a and -1c mRNA, SREBP-1 protein, and FAS, resulting in increased TG content. To determine a direct role for SREBP in mediating the increase in renal lipids and glomerulosclerosis, we studied SREBP-1a transgenic mice with increased renal expression of SREBP-1. The increase in SREBP-1 was associated with increased expression of FAS and acetyl CoA carboxylase, resulting in increased TG content, increased expression of transforming growth factor beta1 and vascular endothelial growth factor, mesangial expansion, glomerulosclerosis, and proteinuria. Our study therefore indicates that renal SREBP-1 expression is increased in diabetes and that SREBP-1 plays an important role in the increased lipid synthesis, TG accumulation, mesangial expansion, glomerulosclerosis, and proteinuria by increasing the expression of transforming growth factor beta and vascular endothelial growth factor.

                Author and article information

                Am J Nephrol
                American Journal of Nephrology
                S. Karger AG
                February 2004
                16 February 2004
                : 24
                : 1
                : 46-53
                Department of Medicine, University of Washington School of Medicine, Seattle, Wash., USA
                75925 Am J Nephrol 2004;24:46–53
                © 2004 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 1, References: 75, Pages: 8
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