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Insecticide susceptibility and vector status of natural populations of Anopheles arabiensis from Sudan.

Transactions of the Royal Society of Tropical Medicine and Hygiene

Sudan, Animals, Statistics as Topic, Phenotype, Parasitic Sensitivity Tests, Mutation, Mosquito Control, Insecticides, genetics, drug effects, Insecticide Resistance, Insect Vectors, Humans, Genes, Insect, Female, Cattle, Anopheles

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      Species composition, blood meal source, sporozoite infection rate, insecticide resistance and the kdr mutations were investigated in the Anopheles gambiae complex from 13 sentinel sites in central Sudan. Species identification revealed that 89.5% of 960 specimens were A. arabiensis. Of 310 indoor resting females, 88.1% were found to have fed on humans, while 10.6% had fed on bovines. The overall sporozoite infection rate from the five localities tested was 2.3%, ranging from 0 to 5.5%. Insecticide susceptibility bioassay results showed 100% mortality on bendiocarb, 54.6-94.2% on permethrin, 55.4-99.1% on DDT and 76.8-100% on malathion. The kdr analysis by PCR and sequencing revealed the presence of the Leu-Phe mutation in both permethrin and DDT bioassays. There was no significant difference in the frequency of kdr (P>0.05) between dead and surviving specimens. These findings have serious implications for the malaria control programmes in Gezira and Sennar states.

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