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      Excessive visceral fat accumulation in advanced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease

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          Abstract

          Background:

          Previous studies have suggested links between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), cardiovascular disease, and abdominal obesity. Although abdominal visceral fat is thought to be associated with cardiovascular risk factors, the degree of visceral fat accumulation in patients with COPD has not been directly studied. The aim of this study was to investigate the abdominal visceral fat accumulation and the association between visceral fat and the severity and changes in emphysema in COPD patients.

          Methods:

          We performed clinical and laboratory tests, including pulmonary function, dyspnea score, and the six-minute walking test in COPD patients (n = 101) and control, which included subjects with a smoking history but without airflow obstruction (n = 62). We used computed tomography to evaluate the abdominal visceral fat area (VFA), subcutaneous fat area (SFA), and the extent of emphysema.

          Results:

          The COPD group had a larger VFA than the control group. The prevalence of non-obese subjects with an increased VFA was greater in the Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease Stages III and IV than in the other stages of COPD. The extent of emphysema was inversely correlated with waist circumference and SFA. However, VFA did not decrease with the severity of emphysema. VFA was positively correlated with the degree of dyspnea.

          Conclusion:

          COPD patients have excessive visceral fat, which is retained in patients with more advanced stages of COPD or severe emphysema despite the absence of obesity.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Abdominal visceral and subcutaneous adipose tissue compartments: association with metabolic risk factors in the Framingham Heart Study.

          Visceral adipose tissue (VAT) compartments may confer increased metabolic risk. The incremental utility of measuring both visceral and subcutaneous abdominal adipose tissue (SAT) in association with metabolic risk factors and underlying heritability has not been well described in a population-based setting. Participants (n=3001) were drawn from the Framingham Heart Study (48% women; mean age, 50 years), were free of clinical cardiovascular disease, and underwent multidetector computed tomography assessment of SAT and VAT volumes between 2002 and 2005. Metabolic risk factors were examined in relation to increments of SAT and VAT after multivariable adjustment. Heritability was calculated using variance-components analysis. Among both women and men, SAT and VAT were significantly associated with blood pressure, fasting plasma glucose, triglycerides, and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol and with increased odds of hypertension, impaired fasting glucose, diabetes mellitus, and metabolic syndrome (P range < 0.01). In women, relations between VAT and risk factors were consistently stronger than in men. However, VAT was more strongly correlated with most metabolic risk factors than was SAT. For example, among women and men, both SAT and VAT were associated with increased odds of metabolic syndrome. In women, the odds ratio (OR) of metabolic syndrome per 1-standard deviation increase in VAT (OR, 4.7) was stronger than that for SAT (OR, 3.0; P for difference between SAT and VAT < 0.0001); similar differences were noted for men (OR for VAT, 4.2; OR for SAT, 2.5). Furthermore, VAT but not SAT contributed significantly to risk factor variation after adjustment for body mass index and waist circumference (P < or = 0.01). Among overweight and obese individuals, the prevalence of hypertension, impaired fasting glucose, and metabolic syndrome increased linearly and significantly across increasing VAT quartiles. Heritability values for SAT and VAT were 57% and 36%, respectively. Although both SAT and VAT are correlated with metabolic risk factors, VAT remains more strongly associated with an adverse metabolic risk profile even after accounting for standard anthropometric indexes. Our findings are consistent with the hypothesized role of visceral fat as a unique, pathogenic fat depot. Measurement of VAT may provide a more complete understanding of metabolic risk associated with variation in fat distribution.
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            Association between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease and systemic inflammation: a systematic review and a meta-analysis.

            Individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are at increased risk of cardiovascular diseases, osteoporosis, and muscle wasting. Systemic inflammation may be involved in the pathogenesis of these disorders. A study was undertaken to determine whether systemic inflammation is present in stable COPD. A systematic review was conducted of studies which reported on the relationship between COPD, forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV(1)) or forced vital capacity (FVC), and levels of various systemic inflammatory markers: C-reactive protein (CRP), fibrinogen, leucocytes, tumour necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha), and interleukins 6 and 8. Where possible the results were pooled together to produce a summary estimate using a random or fixed effects model. Fourteen original studies were identified. Overall, the standardised mean difference in the CRP level between COPD and control subjects was 0.53 units (95% confidence interval (CI) 0.34 to 0.72). The standardised mean difference in the fibrinogen level was 0.47 units (95% CI 0.29 to 0.65). Circulating leucocytes were also higher in COPD than in control subjects (standardised mean difference 0.44 units (95% CI 0.20 to 0.67)), as were serum TNF-alpha levels (standardised mean difference 0.59 units (95% CI 0.29 to 0.89)). Reduced lung function is associated with increased levels of systemic inflammatory markers which may have important pathophysiological and therapeutic implications for subjects with stable COPD.
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              Characteristics of physical activities in daily life in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

              Quantification of physical activities in daily life in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease has increasing clinical interest. However, detailed comparison with healthy subjects is not available. Furthermore, it is unknown whether time spent actively during daily life is related to lung function, muscle force, or maximal and functional exercise capacity. We assessed physical activities and movement intensity with the DynaPort activity monitor in 50 patients (age 64 +/- 7 years; FEV1 43 +/- 18% predicted) and 25 healthy elderly individuals (age 66 +/- 5 years). Patients showed lower walking time (44 +/- 26 vs. 81 +/- 26 minutes/day), standing time (191 +/- 99 vs. 295 +/- 109 minutes/day), and movement intensity during walking (1.8 +/- 0.3 vs. 2.4 +/- 0.5 m/second2; p < 0.0001 for all), as well as higher sitting time (374 +/- 139 vs. 306 +/- 108 minutes/day; p = 0.04) and lying time (87 +/- 97 vs. 29 +/- 33 minutes/day; p = 0.004). Walking time was highly correlated with the 6-minute walking test (r = 0.76, p < 0.0001) and more modestly to maximal exercise capacity, lung function, and muscle force (0.28 < r < 0.64, p < 0.05). Patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease are markedly inactive in daily life. Functional exercise capacity is the strongest correlate of physical activities in daily life.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                1176-9106
                1178-2005
                2011
                2011
                08 August 2011
                : 6
                : 423-430
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Respiratory Care Clinic, Nippon Medical School, Kudan-Minami, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo, Japan;
                [2 ]Department of Internal Medicine, Division of Pulmonary Medicine, Infectious Diseases and Oncology, Nippon Medical School, Sendagi, Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo, Japan
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Kozui Kida, Respiratory Care Clinic, Nippon Medical School, 4-7-15 Kudan-Minami, Chiyoda-ku, Tokyo 102-0074, Japan, Tel +81-3-5276-2325, Fax +81-3-5276-2326, Email kkida@ 123456nms.ac.jp
                Article
                copd-6-423
                10.2147/COPD.S22885
                3157945
                21857782
                © 2011 Furutate et al, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.

                This is an Open Access article which permits unrestricted noncommercial use, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Original Research

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