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      Is Open Access

      Central Nervous System Infections Due to Aspergillus and Other Hyaline Molds

      Journal of Fungi

      MDPI

      central nervous system, Aspergillus, hyaline molds

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          Abstract

          Central nervous system infections due to Aspergillus spp and other hyaline molds such as Fusarium and Scedosporium spp are rare but fatal conditions. Invasion of the central nervous system (CNS) tends to occur as a result of hematogenous dissemination among immunocompromised patients, and by local extension or direct inoculation secondary to trauma in immunocompetent hosts. Efforts should be directed to confirm the diagnosis by image-guided stereotactic brain biopsy when feasible. Non-culture methods could be useful to support the diagnosis, but they have not been validated to be performed in cerebral spinal fluid. Treatment of these infections is challenging given the variable susceptibility profile of these pathogens and the penetration of antifungal agents into the brain.

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          Most cited references 66

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          Voriconazole versus amphotericin B for primary therapy of invasive aspergillosis.

          Voriconazole is a broad-spectrum triazole that is active against aspergillus species. We conducted a randomized trial to compare voriconazole with amphotericin B for primary therapy of invasive aspergillosis. In this randomized, unblinded trial, patients received either intravenous voriconazole (two doses of 6 mg per kilogram of body weight on day 1, then 4 mg per kilogram twice daily for at least seven days) followed by 200 mg orally twice daily or intravenous amphotericin B deoxycholate (1 to 1.5 mg per kilogram per day). Other licensed antifungal treatments were allowed if the initial therapy failed or if the patient had an intolerance to the first drug used. A complete or partial response was considered to be a successful outcome. A total of 144 patients in the voriconazole group and 133 patients in the amphotericin B group with definite or probable aspergillosis received at least one dose of treatment. In most of the patients, the underlying condition was allogeneic hematopoietic-cell transplantation, acute leukemia, or other hematologic diseases. At week 12, there were successful outcomes in 52.8 percent of the patients in the voriconazole group (complete responses in 20.8 percent and partial responses in 31.9 percent) and 31.6 percent of those in the amphotericin B group (complete responses in 16.5 percent and partial responses in 15.0 percent; absolute difference, 21.2 percentage points; 95 percent confidence interval, 10.4 to 32.9). The survival rate at 12 weeks was 70.8 percent in the voriconazole group and 57.9 percent in the amphotericin B group (hazard ratio, 0.59; 95 percent confidence interval, 0.40 to 0.88). Voriconazole-treated patients had significantly fewer severe drug-related adverse events, but transient visual disturbances were common with voriconazole (occurring in 44.8 percent of patients). In patients with invasive aspergillosis, initial therapy with voriconazole led to better responses and improved survival and resulted in fewer severe side effects than the standard approach of initial therapy with amphotericin B. Copyright 2002 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Practice Guidelines for the Diagnosis and Management of Aspergillosis: 2016 Update by the Infectious Diseases Society of America.

            It is important to realize that guidelines cannot always account for individual variation among patients. They are not intended to supplant physician judgment with respect to particular patients or special clinical situations. IDSA considers adherence to these guidelines to be voluntary, with the ultimate determination regarding their application to be made by the physician in the light of each patient's individual circumstances.
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              Diagnosis and management of Aspergillus diseases: executive summary of the 2017 ESCMID-ECMM-ERS guideline

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Fungi (Basel)
                J Fungi (Basel)
                jof
                Journal of Fungi
                MDPI
                2309-608X
                30 August 2019
                September 2019
                : 5
                : 3
                Affiliations
                Division of Infectious Diseases, University of Michigan Health System, Ann Arbor, MI 48109, USA; mmiceli@ 123456med.umich.edu
                Article
                jof-05-00079
                10.3390/jof5030079
                6787746
                31480311
                © 2019 by the author.

                Licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution (CC BY) license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/).

                Categories
                Review

                hyaline molds, aspergillus, central nervous system

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