Secondary hyperparathyroidism (HPTs) in patients with chronic renal failure is related to a reduction of absorption of calcium with hyperplasia of main cells and an increase of PTH levels: this often leads to complications in dialysis. Data from 10 patients (mean age 55 years) with HPTs who underwent total parathyroidectomy from November 1999 to November 2001 were retrospectively collected. Surgical indications included: persistent hypercalcemia, bone fractures, fatigue, joint pain and itching. Median preoperative PTH level was 800 pg/ml. Presurgical work-up included: serum PTH, calcium and alkaline phospha-tases. Thyroid ultrasound and scintigraphy, 99Tc sestamibi scintigraphy, CBM, FNB were also performed. In 5 patients 2 hours prior to the operation 2 MCu of sestamibi 99Tc had been injected. Patients underwent cervical exploration radioguided in 5 cases under general anesthesia. The operation consisted in the removal of all glands with subcutaneous forearm implant in 4 cases. PTH dosage at starting time of operation (time 0) was performed; it was repeated after the removal of each parathyroid gland and postoperatively on days 1 and 3 and then every month for 6 months. Twenty-four hours postoperatively 9 patients showed a great reduction of PTH levels with improved symptoms already on day 1 postoperative. In the patient with persistent HPT an autoimplant had been performed. Secondary HPT still shows unclear aspects. Parathyroidectomy determines an immediate improvement in symptoms. In all observed patients PTH was significantly reduced, serum calcium returned to normal and in any case hypoparathyroidism was detected.